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Ultra-low copper baths for sub-35 nm copper interconnects

(2012) ECS Transactions. 41(35). p.83-97
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Abstract
The copper interconnect technology is constrained by the significant current distribution due to the terminal effect for resistive thin seeds. As a result, the current in the wafer center can become insufficient for cathodic protection of thin copper seeds leading to center seed corrosion. To improve the current distribution, the exchange current density can be lowered e.g. by lowering the copper concentration. Our approach is to investigate and develop acid ultra-low copper baths with feature fill capability. For this goal, the optimum additives concentrations were sought and fill studies in 30 nm trenches were performed. In addition, proposing a high acid chemistry that is also compatible with direct plating, would enable the in-situ copper seed formation and filling in one and the same process step for direct plating on non-copper seed.

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Citation

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Chicago
Atanasova, Tanya, Katrien Strubbe, Laureen Carbonell, Rudy Caluwaerts, Zsolt Tokei, and Philippe M Vereecken. 2012. “Ultra-low Copper Baths for Sub-35 Nm Copper Interconnects.” In ECS Transactions, ed. PM Vereecken, G Oskam, I Shao, and J Fransaer, 41:83–97. Pennington, NJ, USA: Electrochemical Society (ECS).
APA
Atanasova, T., Strubbe, K., Carbonell, L., Caluwaerts, R., Tokei, Z., & Vereecken, P. M. (2012). Ultra-low copper baths for sub-35 nm copper interconnects. In PM Vereecken, G. Oskam, I. Shao, & J. Fransaer (Eds.), ECS Transactions (Vol. 41, pp. 83–97). Presented at the 220th ECS Meeting, Pennington, NJ, USA: Electrochemical Society (ECS).
Vancouver
1.
Atanasova T, Strubbe K, Carbonell L, Caluwaerts R, Tokei Z, Vereecken PM. Ultra-low copper baths for sub-35 nm copper interconnects. In: Vereecken P, Oskam G, Shao I, Fransaer J, editors. ECS Transactions. Pennington, NJ, USA: Electrochemical Society (ECS); 2012. p. 83–97.
MLA
Atanasova, Tanya, Katrien Strubbe, Laureen Carbonell, et al. “Ultra-low Copper Baths for Sub-35 Nm Copper Interconnects.” ECS Transactions. Ed. PM Vereecken et al. Vol. 41. Pennington, NJ, USA: Electrochemical Society (ECS), 2012. 83–97. Print.
@inproceedings{2078569,
  abstract     = {The copper interconnect technology is constrained by the significant current distribution due to the terminal effect for resistive thin seeds. As a result, the current in the wafer center can become insufficient for cathodic protection of thin copper seeds leading to center seed corrosion. To improve the current distribution, the exchange current density can be lowered e.g. by lowering the copper concentration. Our approach is to investigate and develop acid ultra-low copper baths with feature fill capability. For this goal, the optimum additives concentrations were sought and fill studies in 30 nm trenches were performed. In addition, proposing a high acid chemistry that is also compatible with direct plating, would enable the in-situ copper seed formation and filling in one and the same process step for direct plating on non-copper seed.},
  author       = {Atanasova, Tanya and Strubbe, Katrien and Carbonell, Laureen and Caluwaerts, Rudy and Tokei, Zsolt and Vereecken, Philippe M},
  booktitle    = {ECS Transactions},
  editor       = {Vereecken, PM and Oskam, G and Shao, I and Fransaer, J},
  isbn         = {9781607683346},
  issn         = {1938-5862},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Boston, MA, USA},
  number       = {35},
  pages        = {83--97},
  publisher    = {Electrochemical Society (ECS)},
  title        = {Ultra-low copper baths for sub-35 nm copper interconnects},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.3699383},
  volume       = {41},
  year         = {2012},
}

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