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Ecological and human impacts on stand density and distribution of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) in Senegal

(2012) AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY. 50(3). p.253-265
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Abstract
Indigenous fruit tree species such as tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) in African sub-Saharan traditionally act to build resilience into the farming system in terms of food security, income generation and ecosystem stability. Therefore, increasing our knowledge on their ecology and distribution is a priority. Tamarind is mainly grown for the fruits but is also a valuable timber species. The fruit pulp has a high content of vitamin B and is eaten fresh or made into jam, chutney, juice or sweets. Flowers, leaves and seeds are also edible and used in a variety of dishes. The main objective of this study is to evaluate actual density of tamarind in Senegal and the climate change effects on its distribution for better conservation strategies. Tamarind's distribution and density around villages were recorded and modelled in different agro-ecological zones in Senegal using transect method and under current and future climates. Distribution under two future climate scenarios were modelled using four climate models and three time slices (2020, 2050 and 2080). Results show a decreasing gradient in tree density (from 7 to 1 trees km-2) from the Sudano agro-ecological zone (in the south) to the Sahel (in the north). Future climate predictions show that although tamarind distribution will increase in the north-west and south of the country in 2020; by 2050, the area identified as suitable for its growth will be greatly reduced. Areas in the north-west basin appear to be an important refugia for the species under future climate conditions. However, density around villages in this area was found to be relatively low indicating that this could lead to problems of poor connectivity and inbreeding depression. This region should therefore be highlighted as important conservative management and protection strategies of tamarind in this region.
Keywords
climate change, Senegal, MAXENT, modelling, ecology, Sahel, ADANSONIA-DIGITATA L., CLIMATE-CHANGE, SPECIES DISTRIBUTIONS, MAXIMUM-ENTROPY, FUTURE CLIMATE, CONSERVATION, BENIN, MODEL, PREDICTION, TREE

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Chicago
Bourou, Sali, Colm Bowe, Macoumba Diouf, and Patrick Van Damme. 2012. “Ecological and Human Impacts on Stand Density and Distribution of Tamarind (Tamarindus Indica L.) in Senegal.” African Journal of Ecology 50 (3): 253–265.
APA
Bourou, S., Bowe, C., Diouf, M., & Van Damme, P. (2012). Ecological and human impacts on stand density and distribution of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) in Senegal. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, 50(3), 253–265.
Vancouver
1.
Bourou S, Bowe C, Diouf M, Van Damme P. Ecological and human impacts on stand density and distribution of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) in Senegal. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY. 2012;50(3):253–65.
MLA
Bourou, Sali, Colm Bowe, Macoumba Diouf, et al. “Ecological and Human Impacts on Stand Density and Distribution of Tamarind (Tamarindus Indica L.) in Senegal.” AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY 50.3 (2012): 253–265. Print.
@article{2073912,
  abstract     = {Indigenous fruit tree species such as tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) in African sub-Saharan traditionally act to build resilience into the farming system in terms of food security, income generation and ecosystem stability. Therefore, increasing our knowledge on their ecology and distribution is a priority. Tamarind is mainly grown for the fruits but is also a valuable timber species. The fruit pulp has a high content of vitamin B and is eaten fresh or made into jam, chutney, juice or sweets. Flowers, leaves and seeds are also edible and used in a variety of dishes. The main objective of this study is to evaluate actual density of tamarind in Senegal and the climate change effects on its distribution for better conservation strategies. Tamarind's distribution and density around villages were recorded and modelled in different agro-ecological zones in Senegal using transect method and under current and future climates. Distribution under two future climate scenarios were modelled using four climate models and three time slices (2020, 2050 and 2080). Results show a decreasing gradient in tree density (from 7 to 1 trees km-2) from the Sudano agro-ecological zone (in the south) to the Sahel (in the north). Future climate predictions show that although tamarind distribution will increase in the north-west and south of the country in 2020; by 2050, the area identified as suitable for its growth will be greatly reduced. Areas in the north-west basin appear to be an important refugia for the species under future climate conditions. However, density around villages in this area was found to be relatively low indicating that this could lead to problems of poor connectivity and inbreeding depression. This region should therefore be highlighted as important conservative management and protection strategies of tamarind in this region.},
  author       = {Bourou, Sali and Bowe, Colm and Diouf, Macoumba and Van Damme, Patrick},
  issn         = {0141-6707},
  journal      = {AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY},
  keyword      = {climate change,Senegal,MAXENT,modelling,ecology,Sahel,ADANSONIA-DIGITATA L.,CLIMATE-CHANGE,SPECIES DISTRIBUTIONS,MAXIMUM-ENTROPY,FUTURE CLIMATE,CONSERVATION,BENIN,MODEL,PREDICTION,TREE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {253--265},
  title        = {Ecological and human impacts on stand density and distribution of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) in Senegal},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2012.01319.x},
  volume       = {50},
  year         = {2012},
}

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