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Wood charcoal and seeds as indicators for animal husbandry in a wetland site during the late mesolithic–early neolithic transition period (Swifterbant culture, ca. 4600–4000 B.C.) in NW Belgium

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Abstract
Analysis of wood charcoal and seeds from 'Doel sector M', a Swifterbant site (ca. 4600-4000 b.c.) from NW Belgium, provides information on the environment, plant food subsistence, animal husbandry practices and seasonality of this wetland camp site during the mesolithic-neolithic transition period. The results of the analyses of both charcoal and seeds show that the site was located on the top of a sand ridge covered by an upper riverbank forest with Quercus sp., Tilia sp., Ulmus sp. and Fraxinus excelsior, and surrounded by Alnus woodland. Seeds and fruits of Quercus sp., Cornus sanguinea, Corylus avellana, Malus sylvestris and Prunus spinosa probably represent food plants. High numbers of Viscum album charcoal fragments and Hedera helix seeds suggest the use of these plants as leaf fodder, and thus animal husbandry at the site. In terms of seasonality, the use of both Viscum album and Hedera helix is a strong indication that these wetland campsites were occupied during winter/early spring.
Keywords
Swifterbant culture, Viscum album, Hedera helix, Leaf fodder, Neolithisation, CEREAL CULTIVATION, HUMAN IMPACT, SETTLEMENT, SWITZERLAND, NETHERLANDS, VEGETATION, FECES

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Chicago
Deforce, Koen, Jan Bastiaens, Wim Van Neer, Anton Ervynck, An Lentacker, Joris Sergant, and Philippe Crombé. 2013. “Wood Charcoal and Seeds as Indicators for Animal Husbandry in a Wetland Site During the Late Mesolithic–early Neolithic Transition Period (Swifterbant Culture, Ca. 4600–4000 B.C.) in NW Belgium.” Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 22 (1): 51–60.
APA
Deforce, K., Bastiaens, J., Van Neer, W., Ervynck, A., Lentacker, A., Sergant, J., & Crombé, P. (2013). Wood charcoal and seeds as indicators for animal husbandry in a wetland site during the late mesolithic–early neolithic transition period (Swifterbant culture, ca. 4600–4000 B.C.) in NW Belgium. VEGETATION HISTORY AND ARCHAEOBOTANY, 22(1), 51–60.
Vancouver
1.
Deforce K, Bastiaens J, Van Neer W, Ervynck A, Lentacker A, Sergant J, et al. Wood charcoal and seeds as indicators for animal husbandry in a wetland site during the late mesolithic–early neolithic transition period (Swifterbant culture, ca. 4600–4000 B.C.) in NW Belgium. VEGETATION HISTORY AND ARCHAEOBOTANY. 2013;22(1):51–60.
MLA
Deforce, Koen, Jan Bastiaens, Wim Van Neer, et al. “Wood Charcoal and Seeds as Indicators for Animal Husbandry in a Wetland Site During the Late Mesolithic–early Neolithic Transition Period (Swifterbant Culture, Ca. 4600–4000 B.C.) in NW Belgium.” VEGETATION HISTORY AND ARCHAEOBOTANY 22.1 (2013): 51–60. Print.
@article{2069901,
  abstract     = {Analysis of wood charcoal and seeds from 'Doel sector M', a Swifterbant site (ca. 4600-4000 b.c.) from NW Belgium, provides information on the environment, plant food subsistence, animal husbandry practices and seasonality of this wetland camp site during the mesolithic-neolithic transition period. The results of the analyses of both charcoal and seeds show that the site was located on the top of a sand ridge covered by an upper riverbank forest with Quercus sp., Tilia sp., Ulmus sp. and Fraxinus excelsior, and surrounded by Alnus woodland. Seeds and fruits of Quercus sp., Cornus sanguinea, Corylus avellana, Malus sylvestris and Prunus spinosa probably represent food plants. High numbers of Viscum album charcoal fragments and Hedera helix seeds suggest the use of these plants as leaf fodder, and thus animal husbandry at the site. In terms of seasonality, the use of both Viscum album and Hedera helix is a strong indication that these wetland campsites were occupied during winter/early spring.},
  author       = {Deforce, Koen and Bastiaens, Jan  and Van Neer, Wim and Ervynck, Anton and Lentacker, An and Sergant, Joris and Cromb{\'e}, Philippe},
  issn         = {0939-6314},
  journal      = {VEGETATION HISTORY AND ARCHAEOBOTANY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {51--60},
  title        = {Wood charcoal and seeds as indicators for animal husbandry in a wetland site during the late mesolithic--early neolithic transition period (Swifterbant culture, ca. 4600--4000 B.C.) in NW Belgium},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00334-012-0354-2},
  volume       = {22},
  year         = {2013},
}

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