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Atmospheric concentrations and size distributions of aircraft-sampled Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn over the Southern Bight of the North Sea

Author
Organization
Abstract
In an effort to assess the atmospheric input of heavy metals to the Southern Bight of the North Sea, aircraft-based aerosol samplings in the lower troposphere were performed between September 1988 and October 1989. Total atmospheric particulate and size-differentiated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined as a function of altitude, wind direction, air-mass history and season. The obtained data are compared with results of ship-based measurements carried out previously and with literature values of Cu, Pb and Zn, for the marine troposphere of the southern North Sea. The results point out the high variability of the concentrations with the meteorological conditions, as well as with time and location. The experimentally found particle size distributions are bimodal with a significant difference in fractions of small and large particles. These large aerosol particles have a direct and essential impact on the air-to-sea transfer of anthropogenic trace metals, in spite of their low numerical abundance and relatively low heavy metal content.
Keywords
TRACE METALS, AEROSOLS, NORTH SEA, CONCENTRATIONS, SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS, TRACE-ELEMENTS, AEROSOL, METALS, EFFICIENCY, DEPOSITION, CHANNEL, EUROPE, AIR

Citation

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MLA
Injuk, J, P Otten, R Laane, et al. “Atmospheric Concentrations and Size Distributions of Aircraft-sampled Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn over the Southern Bight of the North Sea.” ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT PART A-GENERAL TOPICS 26.14 (1992): 2499–2508. Print.
APA
Injuk, J., Otten, P., Laane, R., Maenhaut, W., & Van Grieken, R. (1992). Atmospheric concentrations and size distributions of aircraft-sampled Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn over the Southern Bight of the North Sea. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT PART A-GENERAL TOPICS, 26(14), 2499–2508.
Chicago author-date
Injuk, J, P Otten, R Laane, Willy Maenhaut, and R Van Grieken. 1992. “Atmospheric Concentrations and Size Distributions of Aircraft-sampled Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn over the Southern Bight of the North Sea.” Atmospheric Environment Part A-general Topics 26 (14): 2499–2508.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Injuk, J, P Otten, R Laane, Willy Maenhaut, and R Van Grieken. 1992. “Atmospheric Concentrations and Size Distributions of Aircraft-sampled Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn over the Southern Bight of the North Sea.” Atmospheric Environment Part A-general Topics 26 (14): 2499–2508.
Vancouver
1.
Injuk J, Otten P, Laane R, Maenhaut W, Van Grieken R. Atmospheric concentrations and size distributions of aircraft-sampled Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn over the Southern Bight of the North Sea. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT PART A-GENERAL TOPICS. 1992;26(14):2499–508.
IEEE
[1]
J. Injuk, P. Otten, R. Laane, W. Maenhaut, and R. Van Grieken, “Atmospheric concentrations and size distributions of aircraft-sampled Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn over the Southern Bight of the North Sea,” ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT PART A-GENERAL TOPICS, vol. 26, no. 14, pp. 2499–2508, 1992.
@article{206781,
  abstract     = {In an effort to assess the atmospheric input of heavy metals to the Southern Bight of the North Sea, aircraft-based aerosol samplings in the lower troposphere were performed between September 1988 and October 1989. Total atmospheric particulate and size-differentiated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined as a function of altitude, wind direction, air-mass history and season. The obtained data are compared with results of ship-based measurements carried out previously and with literature values of Cu, Pb and Zn, for the marine troposphere of the southern North Sea. The results point out the high variability of the concentrations with the meteorological conditions, as well as with time and location. The experimentally found particle size distributions are bimodal with a significant difference in fractions of small and large particles. These large aerosol particles have a direct and essential impact on the air-to-sea transfer of anthropogenic trace metals, in spite of their low numerical abundance and relatively low heavy metal content.},
  author       = {Injuk, J and Otten, P and Laane, R and Maenhaut, Willy and Van Grieken, R},
  issn         = {0960-1686},
  journal      = {ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT PART A-GENERAL TOPICS},
  keywords     = {TRACE METALS,AEROSOLS,NORTH SEA,CONCENTRATIONS,SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS,TRACE-ELEMENTS,AEROSOL,METALS,EFFICIENCY,DEPOSITION,CHANNEL,EUROPE,AIR},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {14},
  pages        = {2499--2508},
  title        = {Atmospheric concentrations and size distributions of aircraft-sampled Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn over the Southern Bight of the North Sea},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0960-1686(92)90102-Q},
  volume       = {26},
  year         = {1992},
}

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