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Amélioration variétale du sésame (Sesamum indicum L.) par mutation induite: effet de la mutagenèse sur la tolérance à la sécheresse et la productivité

Seyni Boureima UGent (2012)
abstract
This study focused on the induction of genetic variability in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) through radiation mutation with the purpose of contributing in broadening the genetic base of sesame and improving sesame yield in drought conditions in Senegal. Therefore, sesame seeds that originated from Senegal were exposed to gamma radiations of different levels to induce mutations. Germinating mutant seedlings were screened for drought resistance using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. Vegetative genotypes were subsequently on-grown in a glasshouse under limited irrigation to determine water deficit tolerance. Finally, genotypes were tested in the field for their yield potential with or without moisture stress. The key findings of this work were that radiations levels ranging from 300 to 400 Gy were efficient enough in generating a wide range of genetic variability with viable mutations in sesame. Moisture deficit corresponding to -1 MPa is the limit beyond which sesame seeds do not germinate. In the mild moisture stress treatment (-0.5 MPa), radicle elongation was promoted for the majority of the genotypes tested when compared to the control plants. During the drought tolerance screening at vegetative stage in glasshouse, the technique of chlorophyll fluorescence was used to evaluate the response to moisture stress of induced-genotypes of sesame by suspending the water supply to plants. Results showed that the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (FV/FM) was less sensitive than performance index (PIABS) to moderate water stress. The drought factor index, calculated from PIABS, is proposed in this work to screen for improved drought tolerance in sesame. Genotypic variation for drought tolerance was evidenced in the mutated population at reproductive stage and several induced-mutants out-yielded the parental sources in drought conditions. In Conclusion, the use of induced mutation technique has allowed the induction of a great genetic variation in the sesame base collection of Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research and obtaining mutants that out-yielded the parental sources in drought conditions.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
promoter
UGent
organization
alternative title
Veredeling van sesamvariëteiten (Sesamum indicum L.) via geïnduceerde mutatie : effect van mutagenese op droogtetolerantie en productiviteit
year
type
dissertation (monograph)
subject
keyword
Induced mutation, drought stress, genetic variation, yield.
pages
XXIV, 194 pages
publisher
Ghent University. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering
place of publication
Ghent, Belgium
defense location
Gent : Faculteit Bio-ingenieurswetenschappen (A0.030)
defense date
2012-03-19 17:00
ISBN
9789059895065
language
French
UGent publication?
yes
classification
D1
additional info
dissertation consists of copyrighted material
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
2067017
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-2067017
date created
2012-03-15 10:13:16
date last changed
2012-03-26 16:35:56
@phdthesis{2067017,
  abstract     = {This study focused on the induction of genetic variability in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) through radiation mutation with the purpose of contributing in broadening the genetic base of sesame and improving sesame yield in drought conditions in Senegal. Therefore, sesame seeds that originated from Senegal were exposed to gamma radiations of different levels to induce mutations. Germinating mutant seedlings were screened for drought resistance using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. Vegetative genotypes were subsequently on-grown in a glasshouse under limited irrigation to determine water deficit tolerance. Finally, genotypes were tested in the field for their yield potential with or without moisture stress. The key findings of this work were that radiations levels ranging from 300 to 400 Gy were efficient enough in generating a wide range of genetic variability with viable mutations in sesame. Moisture deficit corresponding to -1 MPa is the limit beyond which sesame seeds do not germinate. In the mild moisture stress treatment (-0.5 MPa), radicle elongation was promoted for the majority of the genotypes tested when compared to the control plants.
During the drought tolerance screening at vegetative stage in glasshouse, the technique of chlorophyll fluorescence was used to evaluate the response to moisture stress of induced-genotypes of sesame by suspending the water supply to plants. Results showed that the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (FV/FM) was less sensitive than performance index (PIABS) to moderate water stress. The drought factor index, calculated from PIABS, is proposed in this work to screen for improved drought tolerance in sesame. 
Genotypic variation for drought tolerance was evidenced in the mutated population at reproductive stage and several induced-mutants out-yielded the parental sources in drought conditions.
In Conclusion, the use of induced mutation technique has allowed the induction of a great genetic variation in the sesame base collection of Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research and obtaining mutants that out-yielded the parental sources in drought conditions.},
  author       = {Boureima, Seyni},
  isbn         = {9789059895065},
  keyword      = {Induced mutation,drought stress,genetic variation,yield.},
  language     = {fre},
  pages        = {XXIV, 194},
  publisher    = {Ghent University. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering},
  school       = {Ghent University},
  title        = {Am{\'e}lioration vari{\'e}tale du s{\'e}same (Sesamum indicum L.) par mutation induite: effet de la mutagen{\`e}se sur la tol{\'e}rance {\`a} la s{\'e}cheresse et la productivit{\'e}},
  year         = {2012},
}

Chicago
Boureima, Seyni. 2012. “Amélioration Variétale Du Sésame (Sesamum Indicum L.) Par Mutation Induite: Effet De La Mutagenèse Sur La Tolérance à La Sécheresse Et La Productivité”. Ghent, Belgium: Ghent University. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering.
APA
Boureima, S. (2012). Amélioration variétale du sésame (Sesamum indicum L.) par mutation induite: effet de la mutagenèse sur la tolérance à la sécheresse et la productivité. Ghent University. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent, Belgium.
Vancouver
1.
Boureima S. Amélioration variétale du sésame (Sesamum indicum L.) par mutation induite: effet de la mutagenèse sur la tolérance à la sécheresse et la productivité. [Ghent, Belgium]: Ghent University. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering; 2012.
MLA
Boureima, Seyni. “Amélioration Variétale Du Sésame (Sesamum Indicum L.) Par Mutation Induite: Effet De La Mutagenèse Sur La Tolérance à La Sécheresse Et La Productivité.” 2012 : n. pag. Print.