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Biochar amendments change microbial community structure and activity and nutrient dynamics in loamy soils

Nele Ameloot UGent, KC Das, David Buchan UGent and Stefaan De Neve UGent (2011) UK Biochar conference 2011. p.47-47
abstract
Increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have lead to the search for new technologies to mitigate climate change. The use of biochar contributes to stable organic C sequesteration into soils. However the addition of biochar to soils may also change physico-chemical soil properties, microbial activity, nutrient dynamics and consequently soil productivity (Glaser et al., 2002). An incubation experiment was conducted over 98 days into two silty loamy soils, with different management histories, arable land and recently converted grassland to which four different types of biochar were added. Biochar, prepared from either poultry litter or pine chips and pyrolized at both 400 °C and 500 °C, was added at a rate of 20 Mg.ha-1. Every two weeks pH, mineral N (NO3-, NH4+) and plant available phosphorus (PAP) was determined. Additionally soil microbial parameters, such as phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) for the microbial community structure, microbial biomass (by the fumigation-extraction method) and enzyme activities were measured. Due to the biochar amendments nutrient cycles in these loamy soils were affected. Depending on the charring temperature and the biomass feedstock, N dynamics differed significantly among the treatments. Higher charring temperatures slowed the rate of N mineralization down. In pine wood biochar amended soils even an immobilization of N was observed. PAP increased in poultry litter amended soils, also charring temperature increase the amount of PAP. At the end of the incubation the activity of dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a role in the microbial oxidation of organic matter was for both soils highest in the P500 biochar treatment. Microbial biomass C (MBC) decreased during the incubation. While in the arable land only the 400°C biochar applications made the MBC increase, in the converted grasslands all biochar types (and especially the 500°C biochars) induced a MBC increase. PLFA analysis, followed by Fisher’s Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) revealed that pyrolysis temperature had a higher influence on the microbial community structure than the biochar feedstock. Due to biochar amendments there was a decrease of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in both soil types, however in arable land this decrease was more pronounced than in converted grassland. We conclude that the addition of biochar to Flemish loamy soils has a tremendous effect on microbial community and nutrient dynamics. Especially nitrate leaching and the accompanied environmental harm may be prevented by adding woody biochar types to these soils. Soil biological parameters are changed due to biochar amendments, however the microbial response is dependent on the biochar feedstock; pyrolysis conditions and the soil management.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
conference
publication status
published
subject
in
UK Biochar conference 2011
article_number
poster 24
pages
47 - 47
publisher
University of Edinburgh
place of publication
Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
conference name
UK Biochar 2011 : 3rd annual UK conference
conference location
Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
conference start
2011-05-25
conference end
2011-05-26
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
C3
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
2062529
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-2062529
date created
2012-03-08 11:06:28
date last changed
2012-04-04 10:39:30
@inproceedings{2062529,
  abstract     = {Increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have lead to the search for new technologies to mitigate climate change. The use of biochar contributes to stable organic C sequesteration into soils. However the addition of biochar to soils may also change physico-chemical soil properties, microbial activity, nutrient dynamics and consequently soil productivity (Glaser et al., 2002).
An incubation experiment was conducted over 98 days into two silty loamy soils, with different management histories, arable land and recently converted grassland to which four different types of biochar were added. Biochar, prepared from either poultry litter or pine chips and pyrolized at both 400 {\textdegree}C and 500 {\textdegree}C, was added at a rate of 20 Mg.ha-1. Every two weeks pH, mineral N (NO3-, NH4+) and plant available phosphorus (PAP) was determined. Additionally soil microbial parameters, such as phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) for the microbial community structure, microbial biomass (by the fumigation-extraction method) and enzyme activities were measured.
Due to the biochar amendments nutrient cycles in these loamy soils were affected. Depending on the charring temperature and the biomass feedstock, N dynamics differed significantly among the treatments. Higher charring temperatures slowed the rate of N mineralization down. In pine wood biochar amended soils even an immobilization of N was observed. PAP increased in poultry litter amended soils, also charring temperature increase the amount of PAP. At the end of the incubation the activity of dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a role in the microbial oxidation of organic matter was for both soils highest in the P500 biochar treatment. Microbial biomass C (MBC) decreased during the incubation. While in the arable land only the 400{\textdegree}C biochar applications made the MBC increase, in the converted grasslands all biochar types (and especially the 500{\textdegree}C biochars) induced a MBC increase.
PLFA analysis, followed by Fisher{\textquoteright}s Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) revealed that pyrolysis temperature had a higher influence on the microbial community structure than the biochar feedstock. Due to biochar amendments there was a decrease of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in both soil types, however in arable land this decrease was more pronounced than in converted grassland.
We conclude that the addition of biochar to Flemish loamy soils has a tremendous effect on microbial community and nutrient dynamics. Especially nitrate leaching and the accompanied environmental harm may be prevented by adding woody biochar types to these soils. Soil biological parameters are changed due to biochar amendments, however the microbial response is dependent on the biochar feedstock; pyrolysis conditions and the soil management.},
  articleno    = {poster 24},
  author       = {Ameloot, Nele and Das, KC and Buchan, David and De Neve, Stefaan},
  booktitle    = {UK Biochar conference 2011},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Edinburgh, Scotland, UK},
  pages        = {poster 24:47--poster 24:47},
  publisher    = {University of Edinburgh},
  title        = {Biochar amendments change microbial community structure and activity and nutrient dynamics in loamy soils},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
Ameloot, Nele, KC Das, David Buchan, and Stefaan De Neve. 2011. “Biochar Amendments Change Microbial Community Structure and Activity and Nutrient Dynamics in Loamy Soils.” In UK Biochar Conference 2011, 47–47. Edinburgh, Scotland, UK: University of Edinburgh.
APA
Ameloot, N., Das, K., Buchan, D., & De Neve, S. (2011). Biochar amendments change microbial community structure and activity and nutrient dynamics in loamy soils. UK Biochar conference 2011 (pp. 47–47). Presented at the UK Biochar 2011 : 3rd annual UK conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK: University of Edinburgh.
Vancouver
1.
Ameloot N, Das K, Buchan D, De Neve S. Biochar amendments change microbial community structure and activity and nutrient dynamics in loamy soils. UK Biochar conference 2011. Edinburgh, Scotland, UK: University of Edinburgh; 2011. p. 47–47.
MLA
Ameloot, Nele, KC Das, David Buchan, et al. “Biochar Amendments Change Microbial Community Structure and Activity and Nutrient Dynamics in Loamy Soils.” UK Biochar Conference 2011. Edinburgh, Scotland, UK: University of Edinburgh, 2011. 47–47. Print.