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Developmental delay of infants and young children with and without fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa

(2011) AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY. 14(4). p.298-305
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Organization
Abstract
Objective: To describe the extent and nature of developmental delay at different stages in childhood in a community in South Africa, with a known high rate of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Method: A cohort of infants, clinically examined for FASD at two time periods, 7-12 months (N= 392; 45 FASD) and 17-21 months of age (N= 83, 35 FASD) were assessed using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS). Results: Infants and children with FASD perform worse than their Non-FASD counterparts over all scales and total developmental quotients. Mean quotients for both groups decline between assessments across subscales with a particularly marked decline in the hearing and language scale at Time 2 (scores dropping from 110.6 to 83.1 in the Non-FASD group and 106.3 to 72.7 in the FASD group; P=0.004). By early childhood the developmental gap between the groups widens with low maternal education, maternal depression, high parity and previous loss of sibling/s influencing development during early childhood. Conclusion: The FASD group show more evidence of developmental delay over both time points compared to their Non-FASD counterparts. Demographic and socio-economic factors further impact early childhood. These findings are important in setting up primary level psycho-educational and national prevention programmes especially in peri-urban communities with a focus on early childhood development and FASD.
Keywords
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS, DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES, RISK-FACTORS, Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS), Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), Developmental Delay, MATERNAL DEPRESSION, ATTACHMENT SECURITY, FOLLOW-UP, EXPOSURE, COMMUNITY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, RECOGNITION

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Chicago
Davies, L, M Dunn, Matthew Chersich, M Urban, C Chetty, L Olivier, and D Viljoen. 2011. “Developmental Delay of Infants and Young Children with and Without Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa.” African Journal of Psychiatry 14 (4): 298–305.
APA
Davies, L., Dunn, M., Chersich, M., Urban, M., Chetty, C., Olivier, L., & Viljoen, D. (2011). Developmental delay of infants and young children with and without fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, 14(4), 298–305.
Vancouver
1.
Davies L, Dunn M, Chersich M, Urban M, Chetty C, Olivier L, et al. Developmental delay of infants and young children with and without fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY. 2011;14(4):298–305.
MLA
Davies, L, M Dunn, Matthew Chersich, et al. “Developmental Delay of Infants and Young Children with and Without Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa.” AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY 14.4 (2011): 298–305. Print.
@article{2055368,
  abstract     = {Objective: To describe the extent and nature of developmental delay at different stages in childhood in a community in South Africa, with a known high rate of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).
Method: A cohort of infants, clinically examined for FASD at two time periods, 7-12 months (N= 392; 45 FASD) and 17-21 months of age (N= 83, 35 FASD) were assessed using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS).
Results: Infants and children with FASD perform worse than their Non-FASD counterparts over all scales and total developmental quotients. Mean quotients for both groups decline between assessments across subscales with a particularly marked decline in the hearing and language scale at Time 2 (scores dropping from 110.6 to 83.1 in the Non-FASD group and 106.3 to 72.7 in the FASD group; P=0.004). By early childhood the developmental gap between the groups widens with low maternal education, maternal depression, high parity and previous loss of sibling/s influencing development during early childhood.
Conclusion: The FASD group show more evidence of developmental delay over both time points compared to their Non-FASD counterparts. Demographic and socio-economic factors further impact early childhood. These findings are important in setting up primary level psycho-educational and national prevention programmes especially in peri-urban communities with a focus on early childhood development and FASD.},
  author       = {Davies, L and Dunn, M and Chersich, Matthew and Urban, M and Chetty, C and Olivier, L and Viljoen, D},
  issn         = {1994-8220},
  journal      = {AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
  keyword      = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS,DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES,RISK-FACTORS,Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS),Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS),Developmental Delay,MATERNAL DEPRESSION,ATTACHMENT SECURITY,FOLLOW-UP,EXPOSURE,COMMUNITY,EPIDEMIOLOGY,RECOGNITION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {298--305},
  title        = {Developmental delay of infants and young children with and without fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v14i4.7},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2011},
}

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