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Endotoxin transfer through dialysis membranes : small- versus large-pore membranes

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Organization
Abstract
In this in-vivo study, dialysate and serum endotoxin was evaluated before and after haemodialysis with small-pore (PS400) and large-pore (PS600) polysulphone dialysers, and before and after haemodiafiltration with the PS600 filter. The source of the endotoxin was the presence in dialysate of Pseudomonads at a concentration of 10(3)-10(4) CFU/ml. Endotoxin was measured by a modified chromogenic limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. In spite of dialysate endotoxin concentrations > 100 pg/ml, no changes in pre- versus post-treatment LAL reactivity were observed in PS400 dialysis and PS600 haemodiafiltration. In contrast, PS600 haemodialysis was related to an increase in serum LAL reactivity from 1.3 +/- 1.5 to 3.8 +/- 2.0 pg/ml (n = 15, P < 0.01), and five patients (33.3%) showed a post-dialysis value in excess of 5 pg/ml. Our data are consistent with the absence of in-vivo endotoxin transfer during haemodialysis with small-pore dialyser membranes, and during haemodiafiltration with membranes with larger pores. An increase in LAL reactivity during haemodialysis with membranes with larger pores is, however, present, presumably due to the occurrence of backdiffusion/filtration with that specific strategy.
Keywords
BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION, BIOCOMPATIBILITY, BACKDIFFUSION, BACKFILTRATION, DIALYSATE, ENDOTOXIN, HEMODIAFILTRATION, HEMODIALYSIS, PYROGEN, WATER TREATMENT, LIMULUS AMEBOCYTE LYSATE, HUMAN INTERLEUKIN-1, BACTERIAL-ENDOTOXINS, UNITED-STATES, ASSAY, CONTAMINATION, INDUCTION, PLASMA

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Chicago
Vanholder, Raymond, E Van Haecke, Nic Veys, and Severin Ringoir. 1992. “Endotoxin Transfer Through Dialysis Membranes : Small- Versus Large-pore Membranes.” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 7 (4): 333–339.
APA
Vanholder, R., Van Haecke, E., Veys, N., & Ringoir, S. (1992). Endotoxin transfer through dialysis membranes : small- versus large-pore membranes. NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION, 7(4), 333–339.
Vancouver
1.
Vanholder R, Van Haecke E, Veys N, Ringoir S. Endotoxin transfer through dialysis membranes : small- versus large-pore membranes. NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION. 1992;7(4):333–9.
MLA
Vanholder, Raymond, E Van Haecke, Nic Veys, et al. “Endotoxin Transfer Through Dialysis Membranes : Small- Versus Large-pore Membranes.” NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION 7.4 (1992): 333–339. Print.
@article{205175,
  abstract     = {In this in-vivo study, dialysate and serum endotoxin was evaluated before and after haemodialysis with small-pore (PS400) and large-pore (PS600) polysulphone dialysers, and before and after haemodiafiltration with the PS600 filter. The source of the endotoxin was the presence in dialysate of Pseudomonads at a concentration of 10(3)-10(4) CFU/ml. Endotoxin was measured by a modified chromogenic limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. In spite of dialysate endotoxin concentrations > 100 pg/ml, no changes in pre- versus post-treatment LAL reactivity were observed in PS400 dialysis and PS600 haemodiafiltration. In contrast, PS600 haemodialysis was related to an increase in serum LAL reactivity from 1.3 +/- 1.5 to 3.8 +/- 2.0 pg/ml (n = 15, P < 0.01), and five patients (33.3%) showed a post-dialysis value in excess of 5 pg/ml. Our data are consistent with the absence of in-vivo endotoxin transfer during haemodialysis with small-pore dialyser membranes, and during haemodiafiltration with membranes with larger pores. An increase in LAL reactivity during haemodialysis with membranes with larger pores is, however, present, presumably due to the occurrence of backdiffusion/filtration with that specific strategy.},
  author       = {Vanholder, Raymond and Van Haecke, E and Veys, Nic and Ringoir, Severin},
  issn         = {0931-0509},
  journal      = {NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION},
  keywords     = {BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION,BIOCOMPATIBILITY,BACKDIFFUSION,BACKFILTRATION,DIALYSATE,ENDOTOXIN,HEMODIAFILTRATION,HEMODIALYSIS,PYROGEN,WATER TREATMENT,LIMULUS AMEBOCYTE LYSATE,HUMAN INTERLEUKIN-1,BACTERIAL-ENDOTOXINS,UNITED-STATES,ASSAY,CONTAMINATION,INDUCTION,PLASMA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {333--339},
  title        = {Endotoxin transfer through dialysis membranes : small- versus large-pore membranes},
  url          = {http://ndt.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/4/333},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {1992},
}