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T-2 toxin induced Salmonella Typhimurium intoxication results in decreased Salmonella numbers in the cecum contents of pigs, despite marked effects on Salmonella-host cell interactions

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Abstract
The mycotoxin T-2 toxin and Salmonella Typhimurium infections pose a significant threat to human and animal health. Interactions between both agents may result in a different outcome of the infection. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to investigate the effects of low and relevant concentrations of T-2 toxin on the course of a Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pigs. We showed that the presence of 15 and 83 mu g T-2 toxin per kg feed significantly decreased the amount of Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria present in the cecum contents, and a tendency to a reduced colonization of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and colon contents was noticed. In vitro, proteomic analysis of porcine enterocytes revealed that a very low concentration of T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL) affects the protein expression of mitochondrial, endoplasmatic reticulum and cytoskeleton associated proteins, proteins involved in protein synthesis and folding, RNA synthesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and regulatory processes. Similarly low concentrations (1-100 ng/mL) promoted the susceptibility of porcine macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells to Salmonella Typhimurium invasion, in a SPI-1 independent manner. Furthermore, T-2 toxin (1-5 ng/mL) promoted the translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium over an intestinal porcine epithelial cell monolayer. Although these findings may seem in favour of Salmonella Typhimurium, microarray analysis showed that T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL) causes an intoxication of Salmonella Typhimurium, represented by a reduced motility and a downregulation of metabolic and Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 genes. This study demonstrates marked interactions of T-2 toxin with Salmonella Typhimurium pathogenesis, resulting in bacterial intoxication.
Keywords
INTERLEUKIN-8 SECRETION, N-TERMINAL KINASE, PORCINE MACROPHAGES, ESCHERICHIA-COLI, EPITHELIAL-CELLS, GENE-EXPRESSION, PROTEIN-KINASE, ORAL-EXPOSURE, GROWING SWINE, CYCLE ARREST

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MLA
Verbrugghe, Elin, Virginie Vandenbroucke, Maarten Dhaenens, et al. “T-2 Toxin Induced Salmonella Typhimurium Intoxication Results in Decreased Salmonella Numbers in the Cecum Contents of Pigs, Despite Marked Effects on Salmonella-host Cell Interactions.” VETERINARY RESEARCH 43 (2012): n. pag. Print.
APA
Verbrugghe, E., Vandenbroucke, V., Dhaenens, M., Shearer, N., Goossens, J., De Saeger, S., Eeckhout, M., et al. (2012). T-2 toxin induced Salmonella Typhimurium intoxication results in decreased Salmonella numbers in the cecum contents of pigs, despite marked effects on Salmonella-host cell interactions. VETERINARY RESEARCH, 43.
Chicago author-date
Verbrugghe, Elin, Virginie Vandenbroucke, Maarten Dhaenens, Neil Shearer, Joline Goossens, Sarah De Saeger, Mia Eeckhout, et al. 2012. “T-2 Toxin Induced Salmonella Typhimurium Intoxication Results in Decreased Salmonella Numbers in the Cecum Contents of Pigs, Despite Marked Effects on Salmonella-host Cell Interactions.” Veterinary Research 43.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Verbrugghe, Elin, Virginie Vandenbroucke, Maarten Dhaenens, Neil Shearer, Joline Goossens, Sarah De Saeger, Mia Eeckhout, Katharina D’Herde, Arthur Thompson, Dieter Deforce, Filip Boyen, Bregje Leyman, Alexander Van Parys, Patrick De Backer, Freddy Haesebrouck, Siska Croubels, and Frank Pasmans. 2012. “T-2 Toxin Induced Salmonella Typhimurium Intoxication Results in Decreased Salmonella Numbers in the Cecum Contents of Pigs, Despite Marked Effects on Salmonella-host Cell Interactions.” Veterinary Research 43.
Vancouver
1.
Verbrugghe E, Vandenbroucke V, Dhaenens M, Shearer N, Goossens J, De Saeger S, et al. T-2 toxin induced Salmonella Typhimurium intoxication results in decreased Salmonella numbers in the cecum contents of pigs, despite marked effects on Salmonella-host cell interactions. VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2012;43.
IEEE
[1]
E. Verbrugghe et al., “T-2 toxin induced Salmonella Typhimurium intoxication results in decreased Salmonella numbers in the cecum contents of pigs, despite marked effects on Salmonella-host cell interactions,” VETERINARY RESEARCH, vol. 43, 2012.
@article{2047530,
  abstract     = {The mycotoxin T-2 toxin and Salmonella Typhimurium infections pose a significant threat to human and animal health. Interactions between both agents may result in a different outcome of the infection. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to investigate the effects of low and relevant concentrations of T-2 toxin on the course of a Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pigs. We showed that the presence of 15 and 83 mu g T-2 toxin per kg feed significantly decreased the amount of Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria present in the cecum contents, and a tendency to a reduced colonization of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and colon contents was noticed. In vitro, proteomic analysis of porcine enterocytes revealed that a very low concentration of T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL) affects the protein expression of mitochondrial, endoplasmatic reticulum and cytoskeleton associated proteins, proteins involved in protein synthesis and folding, RNA synthesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and regulatory processes. Similarly low concentrations (1-100 ng/mL) promoted the susceptibility of porcine macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells to Salmonella Typhimurium invasion, in a SPI-1 independent manner. Furthermore, T-2 toxin (1-5 ng/mL) promoted the translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium over an intestinal porcine epithelial cell monolayer. Although these findings may seem in favour of Salmonella Typhimurium, microarray analysis showed that T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL) causes an intoxication of Salmonella Typhimurium, represented by a reduced motility and a downregulation of metabolic and Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 genes. This study demonstrates marked interactions of T-2 toxin with Salmonella Typhimurium pathogenesis, resulting in bacterial intoxication.},
  articleno    = {22},
  author       = {Verbrugghe, Elin and Vandenbroucke, Virginie and Dhaenens, Maarten and Shearer, Neil and Goossens, Joline and De Saeger, Sarah and Eeckhout, Mia and D'Herde, Katharina and Thompson, Arthur and Deforce, Dieter and Boyen, Filip and Leyman, Bregje and Van Parys, Alexander and De Backer, Patrick and Haesebrouck, Freddy and Croubels, Siska and Pasmans, Frank},
  issn         = {0928-4249},
  journal      = {VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {INTERLEUKIN-8 SECRETION,N-TERMINAL KINASE,PORCINE MACROPHAGES,ESCHERICHIA-COLI,EPITHELIAL-CELLS,GENE-EXPRESSION,PROTEIN-KINASE,ORAL-EXPOSURE,GROWING SWINE,CYCLE ARREST},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {18},
  title        = {T-2 toxin induced Salmonella Typhimurium intoxication results in decreased Salmonella numbers in the cecum contents of pigs, despite marked effects on Salmonella-host cell interactions},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-43-22},
  volume       = {43},
  year         = {2012},
}

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