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Schools, strain and offending: testing a school contextual version of general strain theory

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Abstract
Based on the idea that schools are important socializing settings for adolescents (Gottfredson, 2001), the school contextual version of General Strain Theory (Agnew, 1999) is tested in this article. The main hypothesis of this study is that strain at the school level affects individual offending by creating individual strain. Findings suggest that school contextual effects differ: convincing contextual effects are found for violent offending but not for general offending. Furthermore, although the school mean level of strain does significantly affect individual violent offending, this effect does not proceed by creating individual strain. It is therefore suggested that the school mean level of strain either has a direct effect on violent offending or influences other important individual offending mechanisms such as social learning or lifestyle risks.
Keywords
MULTILEVEL ANALYSIS, STREET YOUTH, DELINQUENCY, CRIME, VIOLENCE, GENDER, adolescent offending, MST, school context, strain

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Chicago
Op De Beeck, Hanne, Lieven Pauwels, and Johan Put. 2012. “Schools, Strain and Offending: Testing a School Contextual Version of General Strain Theory.” European Journal of Criminology 9 (1): 52–72.
APA
Op De Beeck, H., Pauwels, L., & Put, J. (2012). Schools, strain and offending: testing a school contextual version of general strain theory. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CRIMINOLOGY, 9(1), 52–72.
Vancouver
1.
Op De Beeck H, Pauwels L, Put J. Schools, strain and offending: testing a school contextual version of general strain theory. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CRIMINOLOGY. 2012;9(1):52–72.
MLA
Op De Beeck, Hanne, Lieven Pauwels, and Johan Put. “Schools, Strain and Offending: Testing a School Contextual Version of General Strain Theory.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CRIMINOLOGY 9.1 (2012): 52–72. Print.
@article{2042670,
  abstract     = {Based on the idea that schools are important socializing settings for adolescents (Gottfredson, 2001), the school contextual version of General Strain Theory (Agnew, 1999) is tested in this article. The main hypothesis of this study is that strain at the school level affects individual offending by creating individual strain. Findings suggest that school contextual effects differ: convincing contextual effects are found for violent offending but not for general offending. Furthermore, although the school mean level of strain does significantly affect individual violent offending, this effect does not proceed by creating individual strain. It is therefore suggested that the school mean level of strain either has a direct effect on violent offending or influences other important individual offending mechanisms such as social learning or lifestyle risks.},
  author       = {Op De Beeck, Hanne and Pauwels, Lieven and Put, Johan},
  issn         = {1477-3708},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CRIMINOLOGY},
  keyword      = {MULTILEVEL ANALYSIS,STREET YOUTH,DELINQUENCY,CRIME,VIOLENCE,GENDER,adolescent offending,MST,school context,strain},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {52--72},
  title        = {Schools, strain and offending: testing a school contextual version of general strain theory},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1477370811421646},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2012},
}

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