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Inequalities in health expectancies at older ages in the European Union: findings from the Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)

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Abstract
Background Life expectancy gaps between Eastern and Western Europe are well reported with even larger variations in healthy life years (HLY). Aims To compare European countries with respect to a wide range of health expectancies based on more specific measures that cover the disablement process in order to better understand previous inequalities. Methods Health expectancies at age 50 by gender and country using Sullivan's method were calculated from the Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe Wave 2, conducted in 2006 in 13 countries, including two from Eastern Europe (Poland, the Czech Republic). Health measures included co-morbidity, physical functional limitations (PFL), activity restriction, difficulty with instrumental and basic activities of daily living (ADL), and self-perceived health. Cluster analysis was performed to compare countries with respect to life expectancy at age 50 (LE50) and health expectancies at age 50 for men and women. Results In 2006 the gaps in LE50 between countries were 6.1 years for men and 4.1 years for women. Poland consistently had the lowest health expectancies, however measured, and Switzerland the greatest. Polish women aged 50 could expect 7.4 years fewer free of PFL, 6.2 years fewer HLY, 5.5 years less without ADL restriction and 9.5 years less in good self-perceived health than the main group of countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden). Conclusions Substantial inequalities between countries were evident on all health expectancies. However, these differed across the disablement process which could indicate environmental, technological, healthcare or other factors that may delay progression from disease to disability.
Keywords
EASTERN-EUROPE, DISABLEMENT PROCESS, FORMER SOVIET-UNION, MORTALITY, DEATH, COMPRESSION, DISABILITY, MORBIDITY, COUNTRIES

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Chicago
Jagger, Carol, Claire Weston, Emmanuelle Cambois, Herman Van Oyen, Wilma Nusselder, Gabriele Doblhammer, Jitka Rychtarikova, and Jean-Marie Robine. 2011. “Inequalities in Health Expectancies at Older Ages in the European Union: Findings from the Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe (SHARE).” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 65 (11): 1030–1035.
APA
Jagger, C., Weston, C., Cambois, E., Van Oyen, H., Nusselder, W., Doblhammer, G., Rychtarikova, J., et al. (2011). Inequalities in health expectancies at older ages in the European Union: findings from the Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH, 65(11), 1030–1035.
Vancouver
1.
Jagger C, Weston C, Cambois E, Van Oyen H, Nusselder W, Doblhammer G, et al. Inequalities in health expectancies at older ages in the European Union: findings from the Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH. 2011;65(11):1030–5.
MLA
Jagger, Carol, Claire Weston, Emmanuelle Cambois, et al. “Inequalities in Health Expectancies at Older Ages in the European Union: Findings from the Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe (SHARE).” JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH 65.11 (2011): 1030–1035. Print.
@article{2024135,
  abstract     = {Background Life expectancy gaps between Eastern and Western Europe are well reported with even larger variations in healthy life years (HLY). 
Aims To compare European countries with respect to a wide range of health expectancies based on more specific measures that cover the disablement process in order to better understand previous inequalities. 
Methods Health expectancies at age 50 by gender and country using Sullivan's method were calculated from the Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe Wave 2, conducted in 2006 in 13 countries, including two from Eastern Europe (Poland, the Czech Republic). Health measures included co-morbidity, physical functional limitations (PFL), activity restriction, difficulty with instrumental and basic activities of daily living (ADL), and self-perceived health. Cluster analysis was performed to compare countries with respect to life expectancy at age 50 (LE50) and health expectancies at age 50 for men and women. 
Results In 2006 the gaps in LE50 between countries were 6.1 years for men and 4.1 years for women. Poland consistently had the lowest health expectancies, however measured, and Switzerland the greatest. Polish women aged 50 could expect 7.4 years fewer free of PFL, 6.2 years fewer HLY, 5.5 years less without ADL restriction and 9.5 years less in good self-perceived health than the main group of countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden). 
Conclusions Substantial inequalities between countries were evident on all health expectancies. However, these differed across the disablement process which could indicate environmental, technological, healthcare or other factors that may delay progression from disease to disability.},
  author       = {Jagger, Carol and Weston, Claire and Cambois, Emmanuelle and Van Oyen, Herman and Nusselder, Wilma and Doblhammer, Gabriele and Rychtarikova, Jitka and Robine, Jean-Marie},
  issn         = {0143-005X},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH},
  keyword      = {EASTERN-EUROPE,DISABLEMENT PROCESS,FORMER SOVIET-UNION,MORTALITY,DEATH,COMPRESSION,DISABILITY,MORBIDITY,COUNTRIES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1030--1035},
  title        = {Inequalities in health expectancies at older ages in the European Union: findings from the Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.2010.117705},
  volume       = {65},
  year         = {2011},
}

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