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Sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences in young children with normal hearing

Lieselot Van Deun, Astrid van Wieringen, Tim Van den Bogaert, Fanny Scherf, F Erwin Offeciers, Paul H Van de Heyning, Christian Desloovere, Ingeborg Dhooge UGent, Naima Deggouj, Leo De Raeve, et al. (2009) EAR AND HEARING. 30(2). p.178-190
abstract
Objectives: In this study, procedures for measuring sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences (BMLDs) in young children were developed. Sensitivity for these tasks was assessed in large groups of children between 4 and 9 yr of age to investigate potential developmental trends. Design: Sound localization was measured in the sound field, with a broadband bell-ring presented from one of nine loudspeakers positioned in the frontal horizontal field. A group of 33 children between 4 and 6 yr of age and 5 adults took part in this experiment. Sound lateralization based on interaural time differences was measured with headphones in 49 children between 4 and 9 yr of age and 10 adults. A low-frequency stimulus containing harmonics 2 to 5 from a click train with a rate of 160 Hz was used. In the 8MLD test, the same filtered click train was presented diotically or dichotically (phase reversed or time delayed) in a broadband (200 to 1000 Hz) frozen noise to 23 children between 4 and 6yr of age and 10 adults. For comparison with literature, additional measurements with a 500-Hz sinusoid were administered to adults. All tasks were adapted to the interest and attention span of young children. Results: Children of 5 yr of age did not perform significantly different from adults on the sound localization task, but mean absolute errors were larger for the 4-yr-olds. Also on the BMLD task, 5-yr-old children performed at the adult level, whereas the 4-yr-old children obtained significantly less binaural unmasking compared with the adults. Concerning sound lateralization, a small but significant difference between adults and children existed, but no age effects were apparent in the 4-to 9-yr-old group. Overall, the variation was relatively large in the 4-yr-old group, with some of the children performing at adult level, in all three tasks. Conclusions: The results of this study show that the modified procedures are suitable for testing children from the age of 4 to 5 yr. Furthermore, it seems that binaural hearing capacities of the 5-yr-olds are similar to those of adults. Several observations led to the hypothesis that the observed age differences between 4-yr-olds and older subjects on localization and WILD or between those 4- to 9-yr old and adults on lateralization, were attributable to both a development in binaural hearing and to nonauditory factors, such as task comprehension, attention, and testing conditions. It is possible that the developmental process is more obvious and prolonged in other aspects of binaural hearing, which require more dynamic or more central processing.
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author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
MINIMUM AUDIBLE ANGLE, BILATERAL COCHLEAR IMPLANTS, INTERAURAL TIME DIFFERENCES, INFANTS LOCALIZATION, IMPAIRED LISTENERS, DEVELOPMENTAL-CHANGES, PRESCHOOL-CHILDREN, SPEECH-PERCEPTION, MASKER LEVEL, NARROW-BAND
journal title
EAR AND HEARING
Ear Hear.
volume
30
issue
2
pages
178 - 190
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000264046600004
JCR category
OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY
JCR impact factor
2.091 (2009)
JCR rank
6/36 (2009)
JCR quartile
1 (2009)
ISSN
0196-0202
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
id
2021785
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-2021785
date created
2012-02-07 09:48:36
date last changed
2016-12-19 15:46:06
@article{2021785,
  abstract     = {Objectives: In this study, procedures for measuring sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences (BMLDs) in young children were developed. Sensitivity for these tasks was assessed in large groups of children between 4 and 9 yr of age to investigate potential developmental trends. 
Design: Sound localization was measured in the sound field, with a broadband bell-ring presented from one of nine loudspeakers positioned in the frontal horizontal field. A group of 33 children between 4 and 6 yr of age and 5 adults took part in this experiment. Sound lateralization based on interaural time differences was measured with headphones in 49 children between 4 and 9 yr of age and 10 adults. A low-frequency stimulus containing harmonics 2 to 5 from a click train with a rate of 160 Hz was used. In the 8MLD test, the same filtered click train was presented diotically or dichotically (phase reversed or time delayed) in a broadband (200 to 1000 Hz) frozen noise to 23 children between 4 and 6yr of age and 10 adults. For comparison with literature, additional measurements with a 500-Hz sinusoid were administered to adults. All tasks were adapted to the interest and attention span of young children. 
Results: Children of 5 yr of age did not perform significantly different from adults on the sound localization task, but mean absolute errors were larger for the 4-yr-olds. Also on the BMLD task, 5-yr-old children performed at the adult level, whereas the 4-yr-old children obtained significantly less binaural unmasking compared with the adults. Concerning sound lateralization, a small but significant difference between adults and children existed, but no age effects were apparent in the 4-to 9-yr-old group. Overall, the variation was relatively large in the 4-yr-old group, with some of the children performing at adult level, in all three tasks. 
Conclusions: The results of this study show that the modified procedures are suitable for testing children from the age of 4 to 5 yr. Furthermore, it seems that binaural hearing capacities of the 5-yr-olds are similar to those of adults. Several observations led to the hypothesis that the observed age differences between 4-yr-olds and older subjects on localization and WILD or between those 4- to 9-yr old and adults on lateralization, were attributable to both a development in binaural hearing and to nonauditory factors, such as task comprehension, attention, and testing conditions. It is possible that the developmental process is more obvious and prolonged in other aspects of binaural hearing, which require more dynamic or more central processing.},
  author       = {Van Deun, Lieselot and van Wieringen, Astrid and Van den Bogaert, Tim and Scherf, Fanny and Offeciers, F Erwin and Van de Heyning, Paul H and Desloovere, Christian and Dhooge, Ingeborg and Deggouj, Naima and De Raeve, Leo and Wouters, Jan},
  issn         = {0196-0202},
  journal      = {EAR AND HEARING},
  keyword      = {MINIMUM AUDIBLE ANGLE,BILATERAL COCHLEAR IMPLANTS,INTERAURAL TIME DIFFERENCES,INFANTS LOCALIZATION,IMPAIRED LISTENERS,DEVELOPMENTAL-CHANGES,PRESCHOOL-CHILDREN,SPEECH-PERCEPTION,MASKER LEVEL,NARROW-BAND},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {178--190},
  title        = {Sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences in young children with normal hearing},
  volume       = {30},
  year         = {2009},
}

Chicago
Van Deun, Lieselot, Astrid van Wieringen, Tim Van den Bogaert, Fanny Scherf, F Erwin Offeciers, Paul H Van de Heyning, Christian Desloovere, et al. 2009. “Sound Localization, Sound Lateralization, and Binaural Masking Level Differences in Young Children with Normal Hearing.” Ear and Hearing 30 (2): 178–190.
APA
Van Deun, L., van Wieringen, A., Van den Bogaert, T., Scherf, F., Offeciers, F. E., Van de Heyning, P. H., Desloovere, C., et al. (2009). Sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences in young children with normal hearing. EAR AND HEARING, 30(2), 178–190.
Vancouver
1.
Van Deun L, van Wieringen A, Van den Bogaert T, Scherf F, Offeciers FE, Van de Heyning PH, et al. Sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences in young children with normal hearing. EAR AND HEARING. 2009;30(2):178–90.
MLA
Van Deun, Lieselot, Astrid van Wieringen, Tim Van den Bogaert, et al. “Sound Localization, Sound Lateralization, and Binaural Masking Level Differences in Young Children with Normal Hearing.” EAR AND HEARING 30.2 (2009): 178–190. Print.