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Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a novel adipokine potentially linking obesity to the metabolic syndrome

(2011) DIABETES. 60(7). p.1917-1925
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Abstract
OBJECTIVE-Comprehensive proteomic profiling of the human adipocyte secretome identified dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) as a novel adipoldne. This study assessed the functional implications of the adipokine DPP4 and its association to the metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Human actipocytes and skeletal and smooth muscle cells were used to monitor DPP4 release and assess the effects of soluble DPP4 on insulin signaling. In lean and obese subjects, depot-specific expression of DPP4 and its release from adipose tissue explants were determined and correlated to parameters of the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS-Fully differentiated adipocytes exhibit a substantially higher release of DPP4 compared with preadipocytes or macrophages. Direct addition of DPP4 to fat and skeletal and smooth muscle cells impairs insulin signaling. A fivefold higher level of DPP4 protein expression was seen in visceral compared with subcutaneous fat of obese patients, with no regional difference in lean subjects. DPP4 serum concentrations significantly correlated with adipocyte size. By using adipose tissue explants from lean and obese subjects, we observed a twofold increase in DPP4 release that strongly correlated with adipocyte volume and parameters of the metabolic syndrome and was decreased to the lean level after weight reduction. DPP4 released from adipose tissue correlated positively with an increasing risk score for the metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS-DPP4 is a novel adipoicine that may impair insulin sensitivity in an autocrine and paracrine fashion. Furthermore, DPP4 release strongly correlates with adipocyte size, potentially representing an important source of DPP4 in obesity. Therefore, we suggest that DPP4 may be involved in linking adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome.
Keywords
ADIPOSE-TISSUE, GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1, DPP-IV, INSULIN SENSITIVITY, FAT-CELLS, INHIBITION, ADIPOGENESIS, ADIPONECTIN, ADIPOCYTES, RESISTANCE

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Chicago
Lamers, Daniela, Susanne Famulla, Nina Wronkowitz, Sonja Hartwig, Stefan Lehr, D Margriet Ouwens, Kristin Eckardt, et al. 2011. “Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Is a Novel Adipokine Potentially Linking Obesity to the Metabolic Syndrome.” Diabetes 60 (7): 1917–1925.
APA
Lamers, D., Famulla, S., Wronkowitz, N., Hartwig, S., Lehr, S., Ouwens, D. M., Eckardt, K., et al. (2011). Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a novel adipokine potentially linking obesity to the metabolic syndrome. DIABETES, 60(7), 1917–1925.
Vancouver
1.
Lamers D, Famulla S, Wronkowitz N, Hartwig S, Lehr S, Ouwens DM, et al. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a novel adipokine potentially linking obesity to the metabolic syndrome. DIABETES. 2011;60(7):1917–25.
MLA
Lamers, Daniela, Susanne Famulla, Nina Wronkowitz, et al. “Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Is a Novel Adipokine Potentially Linking Obesity to the Metabolic Syndrome.” DIABETES 60.7 (2011): 1917–1925. Print.
@article{2017766,
  abstract     = {OBJECTIVE-Comprehensive proteomic profiling of the human adipocyte secretome identified dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) as a novel adipoldne. This study assessed the functional implications of the adipokine DPP4 and its association to the metabolic syndrome. 
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Human actipocytes and skeletal and smooth muscle cells were used to monitor DPP4 release and assess the effects of soluble DPP4 on insulin signaling. In lean and obese subjects, depot-specific expression of DPP4 and its release from adipose tissue explants were determined and correlated to parameters of the metabolic syndrome. 
RESULTS-Fully differentiated adipocytes exhibit a substantially higher release of DPP4 compared with preadipocytes or macrophages. Direct addition of DPP4 to fat and skeletal and smooth muscle cells impairs insulin signaling. A fivefold higher level of DPP4 protein expression was seen in visceral compared with subcutaneous fat of obese patients, with no regional difference in lean subjects. DPP4 serum concentrations significantly correlated with adipocyte size. By using adipose tissue explants from lean and obese subjects, we observed a twofold increase in DPP4 release that strongly correlated with adipocyte volume and parameters of the metabolic syndrome and was decreased to the lean level after weight reduction. DPP4 released from adipose tissue correlated positively with an increasing risk score for the metabolic syndrome. 
CONCLUSIONS-DPP4 is a novel adipoicine that may impair insulin sensitivity in an autocrine and paracrine fashion. Furthermore, DPP4 release strongly correlates with adipocyte size, potentially representing an important source of DPP4 in obesity. Therefore, we suggest that DPP4 may be involved in linking adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome.},
  author       = {Lamers, Daniela and Famulla, Susanne and Wronkowitz, Nina and Hartwig, Sonja and Lehr, Stefan and Ouwens, D Margriet and Eckardt, Kristin and Kaufman, Jean and Ryden, Mikael and M{\"u}ller, Stefan and Hanisch, Franz-Georg and Ruige, Johannes and Arner, Peter and Sell, Henrike and Eckel, Juergen},
  issn         = {0012-1797},
  journal      = {DIABETES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {1917--1925},
  title        = {Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a novel adipokine potentially linking obesity to the metabolic syndrome},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db10-1707},
  volume       = {60},
  year         = {2011},
}

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