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Phytochemicals and cancer chemoprevention: epigenetic friends or foe?

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Abstract
Cancer, as one of the non-communicable diseases, remains one of the leading causes of death around the world. Since immune cells that infiltrate tumors engage in an extensive and dynamic crosstalk with cancer cells, inflammatory responses play decisive roles at different stages of tumor development, including initiation, promotion, malignant conversion, invasion, and metastasis. Inflammation also affects immune surveillance and therapy sensitivity. Recent successes of therapeutic interventions in cancer and inflammatory diseases using epigenetic modifiers such as histone deacetylase inhibitors and inhibitors of DNA methylation suggest that epigenetic reprogramming plays an important role in the aetiology of these diseases. Epigenetic changes in DNA methylation patterns at CpG sites (epimutations) or corrupt chromatin states of tumor promoting genes and noncoding RNAs, recently emerged as major governing factors in tumor progression and cancer drug sensitivity. Epigenetic defects (epimutations) are thought to be more easily reversible (when compared with genetic defects) and, as such, have inspired efforts to identify novel compounds that correct epimutations or prevent disease progression. Given the fact that epigenetic modifications occur early in carcinogenesis and represent potentially initiating events in cancer development, they have been identified as promising new targets for chemoprevention strategies. Numerous clinical, epidemiological and laboratory studies have identified various promising nutritional anti-inflammatory compounds as chemopreventive agents, which affect carcinogenic epigenetic marks in the body and the host immune system, and protect against aggressive cancer malignancies. This has recently launched reexploration of chemopreventive phytochemicals for identification of epigenetic targets which allow epigenetic (re)programming of cancer stem cells, prevent metastasis or sensitize for drug sensitivity. This review will discuss mechanisms of epigenome plasticity by cancer-inflammation and chemopreventive phytochemicals.

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MLA
Szarc vel Szic, Katarzina et al. “Phytochemicals and Cancer Chemoprevention: Epigenetic Friends or Foe?” Phytochemicals : Bioactivities and Impact on Health. Ed. Iraj Rasooli. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, 2011. 159–198. Print.
APA
Szarc vel Szic, K., Palagani, A., Hassannia, B., Sabbe, L., Heyninck, K., Haegeman, G., & Vanden Berghe, W. (2011). Phytochemicals and cancer chemoprevention: epigenetic friends or foe? In I. Rasooli (Ed.), Phytochemicals : bioactivities and impact on health (pp. 159–198). Rijeka, Croatia: InTech.
Chicago author-date
Szarc vel Szic, Katarzina, Ajay Palagani, Behrouz Hassannia, Linde Sabbe, Karen Heyninck, Guy Haegeman, and Wim Vanden Berghe. 2011. “Phytochemicals and Cancer Chemoprevention: Epigenetic Friends or Foe?” In Phytochemicals : Bioactivities and Impact on Health, ed. Iraj Rasooli, 159–198. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Szarc vel Szic, Katarzina, Ajay Palagani, Behrouz Hassannia, Linde Sabbe, Karen Heyninck, Guy Haegeman, and Wim Vanden Berghe. 2011. “Phytochemicals and Cancer Chemoprevention: Epigenetic Friends or Foe?” In Phytochemicals : Bioactivities and Impact on Health, ed. Iraj Rasooli, 159–198. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech.
Vancouver
1.
Szarc vel Szic K, Palagani A, Hassannia B, Sabbe L, Heyninck K, Haegeman G, et al. Phytochemicals and cancer chemoprevention: epigenetic friends or foe? In: Rasooli I, editor. Phytochemicals : bioactivities and impact on health. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech; 2011. p. 159–98.
IEEE
[1]
K. Szarc vel Szic et al., “Phytochemicals and cancer chemoprevention: epigenetic friends or foe?,” in Phytochemicals : bioactivities and impact on health, I. Rasooli, Ed. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, 2011, pp. 159–198.
@incollection{2015215,
  abstract     = {Cancer, as one of the non-communicable diseases, remains one of the leading causes of death around the world. Since immune cells that infiltrate tumors engage in an extensive and dynamic crosstalk with cancer cells, inflammatory responses play decisive roles at different stages of tumor development, including initiation, promotion, malignant conversion, invasion, and metastasis. Inflammation also affects immune surveillance and therapy sensitivity. Recent successes of therapeutic interventions in cancer and inflammatory diseases using epigenetic modifiers such as histone deacetylase inhibitors and inhibitors of DNA methylation suggest that epigenetic reprogramming plays an important role in the aetiology of these diseases. Epigenetic changes in DNA methylation patterns at CpG sites (epimutations) or corrupt chromatin states of tumor promoting genes and noncoding RNAs, recently emerged as major governing factors in tumor progression and cancer drug sensitivity.  Epigenetic defects (epimutations) are thought to be more easily reversible (when compared with genetic defects) and, as such, have inspired efforts to identify novel compounds that correct epimutations or prevent disease progression. Given the fact that epigenetic modifications occur early in carcinogenesis and represent potentially initiating events in cancer development, they have been identified as promising new targets for chemoprevention strategies. Numerous clinical, epidemiological and laboratory studies have identified various promising nutritional anti-inflammatory compounds as chemopreventive agents, which affect carcinogenic epigenetic marks in the body and the host immune system, and protect against aggressive cancer malignancies. This has recently launched reexploration of chemopreventive phytochemicals for identification of  epigenetic targets which allow epigenetic (re)programming of cancer stem cells,  prevent metastasis or sensitize for drug sensitivity.  This review will discuss mechanisms of epigenome plasticity by cancer-inflammation and chemopreventive phytochemicals.},
  author       = {Szarc vel Szic, Katarzina and Palagani, Ajay and Hassannia, Behrouz and Sabbe, Linde and Heyninck, Karen and Haegeman, Guy and Vanden Berghe, Wim},
  booktitle    = {Phytochemicals : bioactivities and impact on health},
  editor       = {Rasooli, Iraj},
  isbn         = {9789533074245},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {159--198},
  publisher    = {InTech},
  title        = {Phytochemicals and cancer chemoprevention: epigenetic friends or foe?},
  url          = {http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/phytochemicals-and-cancer-chemoprevention-epigenetic-friends-or-foe-},
  year         = {2011},
}