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Analytical characterization of artists' pigments used in old and modern paintings by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

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Abstract
The analytical characterization of artists' pigments is a most helpful tool for art history, conservation and restoration of paintings. A very gentle method of ultra-microsampling was developed that is especially applicable to paintings under restoration. It provides a sample mass of about 1 mug and is virtually non-destructive. This minute amount is sufficient for total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to determine most of those elements building inorganic pigments. The convenient and fast method was applied to oil paintings. Various pigments were identified and their mixing proportion was determined even quantitatively.

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MLA
Klockenkämper, Reinhold, et al. “Analytical Characterization of Artists’ Pigments Used in Old and Modern Paintings by Total-Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence.” SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART B-ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY, vol. 48, no. 2, 1993, pp. 239–46.
APA
Klockenkämper, R., von Bohlen, A., Moens, L., & Devos, W. (1993). Analytical characterization of artists’ pigments used in old and modern paintings by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence. SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART B-ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY, 48(2), 239–246.
Chicago author-date
Klockenkämper, Reinhold, Alex von Bohlen, Luc Moens, and Wim Devos. 1993. “Analytical Characterization of Artists’ Pigments Used in Old and Modern Paintings by Total-Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence.” SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART B-ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY 48 (2): 239–46.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Klockenkämper, Reinhold, Alex von Bohlen, Luc Moens, and Wim Devos. 1993. “Analytical Characterization of Artists’ Pigments Used in Old and Modern Paintings by Total-Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence.” SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART B-ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY 48 (2): 239–246.
Vancouver
1.
Klockenkämper R, von Bohlen A, Moens L, Devos W. Analytical characterization of artists’ pigments used in old and modern paintings by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence. SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART B-ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY. 1993;48(2):239–46.
IEEE
[1]
R. Klockenkämper, A. von Bohlen, L. Moens, and W. Devos, “Analytical characterization of artists’ pigments used in old and modern paintings by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence,” SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART B-ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 239–246, 1993.
@article{200866,
  abstract     = {The analytical characterization of artists' pigments is a most helpful tool for art history, conservation and restoration of paintings. A very gentle method of ultra-microsampling was developed that is especially applicable to paintings under restoration. It provides a sample mass of about 1 mug and is virtually non-destructive. This minute amount is sufficient for total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to determine most of those elements building inorganic pigments. The convenient and fast method was applied to oil paintings. Various pigments were identified and their mixing proportion was determined even quantitatively.},
  author       = {Klockenkämper, Reinhold and von Bohlen, Alex and Moens, Luc and Devos, Wim},
  issn         = {0584-8547},
  journal      = {SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART B-ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Geesthacht, Germany},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {239--246},
  title        = {Analytical characterization of artists' pigments used in old and modern paintings by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0584-8547(93)80029-T},
  volume       = {48},
  year         = {1993},
}

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