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Lack of phylogeographic structure in the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa suggests global dispersal

(2011) PLOS ONE. 6(5).
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Abstract
Background : Free-living microorganisms have long been assumed to have ubiquitous distributions with little biogeographic signature because they typically exhibit high dispersal potential and large population sizes. However, molecular data provide contrasting results and it is far from clear to what extent dispersal limitation determines geographic structuring of microbial populations. We aimed to determine biogeographical patterns of the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Being widely distributed on a global scale but patchily on a regional scale, this prokaryote is an ideal model organism to study microbial dispersal and biogeography. Methodology/Principal Findings : The phylogeography of M. aeruginosa was studied based on a dataset of 311 rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences sampled from six continents. Richness of ITS sequences was high (239 ITS types were detected). Genetic divergence among ITS types averaged 4% (maximum pairwise divergence was 13%). Preliminary analyses revealed nearly completely unresolved phylogenetic relationships and a lack of genetic structure among all sequences due to extensive homoplasy at multiple hypervariable sites. After correcting for this, still no clear phylogeographic structure was detected, and no pattern of isolation by distance was found on a global scale. Concomitantly, genetic differentiation among continents was marginal, whereas variation within continents was high and was mostly shared with all other continents. Similarly, no genetic structure across climate zones was detected. Conclusions/Significance : The high overall diversity and wide global distribution of common ITS types in combination with the lack of phylogeographic structure suggest that intercontinental dispersal of M. aeruginosa ITS types is not rare, and that this species might have a truly cosmopolitan distribution.
Keywords
TRANSCRIBED SPACER SEQUENCES, 16S RIBOSOMAL-RNA, GRADIENT GEL-ELECTROPHORESIS, GENETIC DIVERSITY, TOXIC CYANOBACTERIUM, NATURAL-POPULATIONS, MICROBIAL BIOGEOGRAPHY, SPATIOTEMPORAL CHANGES, STRAINS CYANOBACTERIA, PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
van Gremberghe, Ineke, Frédérik Leliaert, Joachim Mergeay, Pieter Vanormelingen, Katleen Van Der Gucht, Ann-Eline Debeer, Gissell Lacerot, Luc De Meester, and Wim Vyverman. 2011. “Lack of Phylogeographic Structure in the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Microcystis Aeruginosa Suggests Global Dispersal.” Plos One 6 (5).
APA
van Gremberghe, I., Leliaert, F., Mergeay, J., Vanormelingen, P., Van Der Gucht, K., Debeer, A.-E., Lacerot, G., et al. (2011). Lack of phylogeographic structure in the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa suggests global dispersal. PLOS ONE, 6(5).
Vancouver
1.
van Gremberghe I, Leliaert F, Mergeay J, Vanormelingen P, Van Der Gucht K, Debeer A-E, et al. Lack of phylogeographic structure in the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa suggests global dispersal. PLOS ONE. 2011;6(5).
MLA
van Gremberghe, Ineke, Frédérik Leliaert, Joachim Mergeay, et al. “Lack of Phylogeographic Structure in the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Microcystis Aeruginosa Suggests Global Dispersal.” PLOS ONE 6.5 (2011): n. pag. Print.
@article{2001781,
  abstract     = {Background : Free-living microorganisms have long been assumed to have ubiquitous distributions with little biogeographic signature because they typically exhibit high dispersal potential and large population sizes. However, molecular data provide contrasting results and it is far from clear to what extent dispersal limitation determines geographic structuring of microbial populations. We aimed to determine biogeographical patterns of the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Being widely distributed on a global scale but patchily on a regional scale, this prokaryote is an ideal model organism to study microbial dispersal and biogeography.
Methodology/Principal Findings : The phylogeography of M. aeruginosa was studied based on a dataset of 311 rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences sampled from six continents. Richness of ITS sequences was high (239 ITS types were detected). Genetic divergence among ITS types averaged 4\% (maximum pairwise divergence was 13\%). Preliminary analyses revealed nearly completely unresolved phylogenetic relationships and a lack of genetic structure among all sequences due to extensive homoplasy at multiple hypervariable sites. After correcting for this, still no clear phylogeographic structure was detected, and no pattern of isolation by distance was found on a global scale. Concomitantly, genetic differentiation among continents was marginal, whereas variation within continents was high and was mostly shared with all other continents. Similarly, no genetic structure across climate zones was detected.
Conclusions/Significance : The high overall diversity and wide global distribution of common ITS types in combination with the lack of phylogeographic structure suggest that intercontinental dispersal of M. aeruginosa ITS types is not rare, and that this species might have a truly cosmopolitan distribution.},
  articleno    = {e19561},
  author       = {van Gremberghe, Ineke and Leliaert, Fr{\'e}d{\'e}rik and Mergeay, Joachim and Vanormelingen, Pieter and Van Der Gucht, Katleen and Debeer, Ann-Eline and Lacerot, Gissell and De Meester, Luc and Vyverman, Wim},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {12},
  title        = {Lack of phylogeographic structure in the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa suggests global dispersal},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019561},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2011},
}

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