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Scapular-muscle performance: two training programs in adolescent swimmers

Annemie Van De Velde (UGent) , Kristof De Mey (UGent) , Annelies Maenhout (UGent) , Patrick Calders (UGent) and Ann Cools (UGent)
(2011) JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING. 46(2). p.160-167
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Abstract
Context: Swimming requires well-balanced scapular-muscle performance. An additional strength-training program for the shoulders is pursued by swimmers, but whether these muscle-training programs need to be generic or specific for endurance or strength is unknown. Objective: To evaluate isokinetic scapular-muscle performance in a population of adolescent swimmers and to compare the results of training programs designed for strength or muscle endurance. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University human research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen adolescent swimmers. Intervention(s): Each participant pursued a 12-week scapular-training program designed to improve either muscle strength or muscle endurance. Main Outcome Measure(s): Bilateral peak force, fatigue index, and protraction/retraction strength ratios before and after the scapular-training program. Results: Scapular protraction/retraction ratios were slightly higher than 1 (dominant side = 1.08, nondominant side = 1.25, P = .006). Side-to-side differences in retraction strength were apparent both before and after the training program (P = .03 and P = .05, respectively). After the training program, maximal protraction (P < .05) and retraction (P < .01) strength improved on the nondominant side. Peak force and fatigue index were not different between the training groups. The fatigue indexes for protraction on both sides (P < .05) and retraction on the nondominant side (P = .009) were higher after the training program. Conclusions: We describe the scapular-muscle characteristics of a group of adolescent swimmers. Both muscle-strength and muscle-endurance programs improved absolute muscle strength. Neither of the strength programs had a positive effect on scapular-muscle endurance. Our results may be valuable for coaches and physiotherapists when they are designing exercise programs for swimmers.
Keywords
upper extremity, strength training, endurance training, athletes, SHOULDER PAIN, COMPETITIVE SWIMMERS, SERRATUS ANTERIOR, REHABILITATION, IMPINGEMENT, EXERCISES, STRENGTH, ENDURANCE, BALANCE

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Citation

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Chicago
Van De Velde, Annemie, Kristof De Mey, Annelies Maenhout, Patrick Calders, and Ann Cools. 2011. “Scapular-muscle Performance: Two Training Programs in Adolescent Swimmers.” Journal of Athletic Training 46 (2): 160–167.
APA
Van De Velde, A., De Mey, K., Maenhout, A., Calders, P., & Cools, A. (2011). Scapular-muscle performance: two training programs in adolescent swimmers. JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING, 46(2), 160–167.
Vancouver
1.
Van De Velde A, De Mey K, Maenhout A, Calders P, Cools A. Scapular-muscle performance: two training programs in adolescent swimmers. JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING. 2011;46(2):160–7.
MLA
Van De Velde, Annemie, Kristof De Mey, Annelies Maenhout, et al. “Scapular-muscle Performance: Two Training Programs in Adolescent Swimmers.” JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING 46.2 (2011): 160–167. Print.
@article{1999806,
  abstract     = {Context: Swimming requires well-balanced scapular-muscle performance. An additional strength-training program for the shoulders is pursued by swimmers, but whether these muscle-training programs need to be generic or specific for endurance or strength is unknown. 
Objective: To evaluate isokinetic scapular-muscle performance in a population of adolescent swimmers and to compare the results of training programs designed for strength or muscle endurance. 
Design: Controlled laboratory study. 
Setting: University human research laboratory. 
Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen adolescent swimmers. 
Intervention(s): Each participant pursued a 12-week scapular-training program designed to improve either muscle strength or muscle endurance. 
Main Outcome Measure(s): Bilateral peak force, fatigue index, and protraction/retraction strength ratios before and after the scapular-training program. 
Results: Scapular protraction/retraction ratios were slightly higher than 1 (dominant side = 1.08, nondominant side = 1.25, P = .006). Side-to-side differences in retraction strength were apparent both before and after the training program (P = .03 and P = .05, respectively). After the training program, maximal protraction (P {\textlangle} .05) and retraction (P {\textlangle} .01) strength improved on the nondominant side. Peak force and fatigue index were not different between the training groups. The fatigue indexes for protraction on both sides (P {\textlangle} .05) and retraction on the nondominant side (P = .009) were higher after the training program. 
Conclusions: We describe the scapular-muscle characteristics of a group of adolescent swimmers. Both muscle-strength and muscle-endurance programs improved absolute muscle strength. Neither of the strength programs had a positive effect on scapular-muscle endurance. Our results may be valuable for coaches and physiotherapists when they are designing exercise programs for swimmers.},
  author       = {Van De Velde, Annemie and De Mey, Kristof and Maenhout, Annelies and Calders, Patrick and Cools, Ann},
  issn         = {1062-6050},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING},
  keyword      = {upper extremity,strength training,endurance training,athletes,SHOULDER PAIN,COMPETITIVE SWIMMERS,SERRATUS ANTERIOR,REHABILITATION,IMPINGEMENT,EXERCISES,STRENGTH,ENDURANCE,BALANCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {160--167},
  title        = {Scapular-muscle performance: two training programs in adolescent swimmers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-46.2.160},
  volume       = {46},
  year         = {2011},
}

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