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Theophylline alters distribution of blood flow to respiratory muscles

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Abstract
This study was designed to examine the effects of theophylline on respiratory muscle blood flow in 11 lightly anesthetized and spontaneously breathing dogs using the radioactive microsphere tracer technique. During quiet breathing, blood flow to the costal diaphragm (25.1 +/- 13.9 ml/100 g/min) exceeded blood flow to the parasternal intercostals (18.0 +/- 10.2 ml/100 g/min, p < 0.05). Inspiratory resistive loading abolished these differences by increasing blood flow to the parasternal intercostals more than to the diaphragm. Aminophylline (40 mg/kg) significantly increased minute ventilation and tidal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) swing during quiet breathing but not during inspiratory resistive loading. Theophylline did not affect diaphragmatic blood flow during inspiratory resistive loading while the same Pdi swing and tension-time index (TTdi) were reached. During quiet breathing, however, theophylline significantly (p < 0.05) increased blood flow to the triangularis sterni from 7.9 +/- 5.6 to 18.1 +/- 25.6 ml/100 g/min and to the transversus abdominis from 10.8 +/- 8.4 to 14.6 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min and tended to increase blood flow to the costal diaphragm and the parasternals. We conclude that (I) during quiet breathing, but not during inspiratory resistive loading, blood flow to the costal diaphragm exceeded flow to the parasternal intercostals; (2) during quiet breathing, theophylline increased blood flow to the expiratory muscles as it promoted recruitment of expiratory muscles; and (3) theophylline did not affect diaphragmatic blood flow for a given TTdi.
Keywords
OXYGEN-CONSUMPTION, FATIGUED CANINE DIAPHRAGM, ANESTHETIZED DOGS, CONTRACTILITY, AMINOPHYLLINE, ACTIVATION, PRESSURE, STRENGTH, TENSION, HYPOXIA

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MLA
Derom, Eric, Stefan Janssens, Johan Vanhaecke, et al. “Theophylline Alters Distribution of Blood Flow to Respiratory Muscles.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE 150.4 (1994): 941–946. Print.
APA
Derom, E., Janssens, S., Vanhaecke, J., de Bock, V., CHEN, Y., & Decramer, M. (1994). Theophylline alters distribution of blood flow to respiratory muscles. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 150(4), 941–946.
Chicago author-date
Derom, Eric, Stefan Janssens, Johan Vanhaecke, Vera de Bock, Yuan CHEN, and Marc Decramer. 1994. “Theophylline Alters Distribution of Blood Flow to Respiratory Muscles.” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 150 (4): 941–946.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Derom, Eric, Stefan Janssens, Johan Vanhaecke, Vera de Bock, Yuan CHEN, and Marc Decramer. 1994. “Theophylline Alters Distribution of Blood Flow to Respiratory Muscles.” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 150 (4): 941–946.
Vancouver
1.
Derom E, Janssens S, Vanhaecke J, de Bock V, CHEN Y, Decramer M. Theophylline alters distribution of blood flow to respiratory muscles. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE. 1994;150(4):941–6.
IEEE
[1]
E. Derom, S. Janssens, J. Vanhaecke, V. de Bock, Y. CHEN, and M. Decramer, “Theophylline alters distribution of blood flow to respiratory muscles,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, vol. 150, no. 4, pp. 941–946, 1994.
@article{199821,
  abstract     = {This study was designed to examine the effects of theophylline on respiratory muscle blood flow in 11 lightly anesthetized and spontaneously breathing dogs using the radioactive microsphere tracer technique. During quiet breathing, blood flow to the costal diaphragm (25.1 +/- 13.9 ml/100 g/min) exceeded blood flow to the parasternal intercostals (18.0 +/- 10.2 ml/100 g/min, p < 0.05). Inspiratory resistive loading abolished these differences by increasing blood flow to the parasternal intercostals more than to the diaphragm. Aminophylline (40 mg/kg) significantly increased minute ventilation and tidal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) swing during quiet breathing but not during inspiratory resistive loading. Theophylline did not affect diaphragmatic blood flow during inspiratory resistive loading while the same Pdi swing and tension-time index (TTdi) were reached. During quiet breathing, however, theophylline significantly (p < 0.05) increased blood flow to the triangularis sterni from 7.9 +/- 5.6 to 18.1 +/- 25.6 ml/100 g/min and to the transversus abdominis from 10.8 +/- 8.4 to 14.6 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min and tended to increase blood flow to the costal diaphragm and the parasternals. We conclude that (I) during quiet breathing, but not during inspiratory resistive loading, blood flow to the costal diaphragm exceeded flow to the parasternal intercostals; (2) during quiet breathing, theophylline increased blood flow to the expiratory muscles as it promoted recruitment of expiratory muscles; and (3) theophylline did not affect diaphragmatic blood flow for a given TTdi.},
  author       = {Derom, Eric and Janssens, Stefan and Vanhaecke, Johan and de Bock, Vera and CHEN, Yuan and Decramer, Marc},
  issn         = {1073-449X},
  journal      = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE},
  keywords     = {OXYGEN-CONSUMPTION,FATIGUED CANINE DIAPHRAGM,ANESTHETIZED DOGS,CONTRACTILITY,AMINOPHYLLINE,ACTIVATION,PRESSURE,STRENGTH,TENSION,HYPOXIA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {941--946},
  title        = {Theophylline alters distribution of blood flow to respiratory muscles},
  url          = {http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/150/4/941},
  volume       = {150},
  year         = {1994},
}