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Comparison between the first and second versions of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire: psychosocial risk factors for a high need for recovery after work

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Abstract
The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ I) was developed as a tool to assess a broad range of psychosocial work environment factors and was recently revised (COPSOQ II). The research question in this study was: Do COPSOQ II-scales predict a high need for recovery (NFR) after work better than COPSOQ I-scales? A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 990 subjects (84.5% response), employed in the public sector. Psychosocial factors were assessed by COPSOQ I and COPSOQ II. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios for the presence of a high NFR, controlled for gender, age, physical workload and other relevant occupational and non-occupational factors. Analyses were performed for COPSOQ I and COPSOQ II separately. In both COPSOQ versions, 'quantitative demands' (p < 0.001) and 'job insecurity' (p < 0.005) were significantly associated with a high NFR. Additionally, in the COPSOQ I model, 'demands for hiding emotions' (p < 0.05) and 'degrees of freedom' (p < 0.05), and in the COPSOQ II model 'emotional demands' (p < 0.05) and 'commitment to the workplace' (p < 0.005) were significant as well. 'Degrees of freedom' was omitted by the developers in the revised COPSOQ II. Reintroducing it into the COPSOQ II model did not alter the existing associations, but pointed out 'degrees of freedom' to be an additional important dimension (p < 0.05). The COPSOQ II model with 'degrees of freedom' included also had the best data fit. The results suggested the COPSOQ II to be better predictive than COPSOQ I for a high NFR, but also indicated that 'degrees of freedom' should be included into the COPSOQ II when studying the NFR as outcome parameter.
Keywords
COPSOQ, Psychosocial work environment, Degrees of freedom, 2-YEAR PROSPECTIVE COHORT, SICKNESS ABSENCE, TRUCK DRIVERS, JOB STRAIN, HEALTH, FATIGUE, SCALE, RELIABILITY, ENVIRONMENT, VALIDITY

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MLA
Kiss, Philippe, Marc De Meester, André Kruse, et al. “Comparison Between the First and Second Versions of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire: Psychosocial Risk Factors for a High Need for Recovery After Work.” INTERNATIONAL ARCHIVES OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 86.1 (2013): 17–24. Print.
APA
Kiss, P., De Meester, M., Kruse, A., Chavée, B., & Braeckman, L. (2013). Comparison between the first and second versions of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire: psychosocial risk factors for a high need for recovery after work. INTERNATIONAL ARCHIVES OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, 86(1), 17–24.
Chicago author-date
Kiss, Philippe, Marc De Meester, André Kruse, Brigitte Chavée, and Lutgart Braeckman. 2013. “Comparison Between the First and Second Versions of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire: Psychosocial Risk Factors for a High Need for Recovery After Work.” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 86 (1): 17–24.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Kiss, Philippe, Marc De Meester, André Kruse, Brigitte Chavée, and Lutgart Braeckman. 2013. “Comparison Between the First and Second Versions of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire: Psychosocial Risk Factors for a High Need for Recovery After Work.” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 86 (1): 17–24.
Vancouver
1.
Kiss P, De Meester M, Kruse A, Chavée B, Braeckman L. Comparison between the first and second versions of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire: psychosocial risk factors for a high need for recovery after work. INTERNATIONAL ARCHIVES OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH. 2013;86(1):17–24.
IEEE
[1]
P. Kiss, M. De Meester, A. Kruse, B. Chavée, and L. Braeckman, “Comparison between the first and second versions of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire: psychosocial risk factors for a high need for recovery after work,” INTERNATIONAL ARCHIVES OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 2013.
@article{1995621,
  abstract     = {The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ I) was developed as a tool to assess a broad range of psychosocial work environment factors and was recently revised (COPSOQ II). The research question in this study was: Do COPSOQ II-scales predict a high need for recovery (NFR) after work better than COPSOQ I-scales? 
A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 990 subjects (84.5% response), employed in the public sector. Psychosocial factors were assessed by COPSOQ I and COPSOQ II. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios for the presence of a high NFR, controlled for gender, age, physical workload and other relevant occupational and non-occupational factors. Analyses were performed for COPSOQ I and COPSOQ II separately. 
In both COPSOQ versions, 'quantitative demands' (p < 0.001) and 'job insecurity' (p < 0.005) were significantly associated with a high NFR. Additionally, in the COPSOQ I model, 'demands for hiding emotions' (p < 0.05) and 'degrees of freedom' (p < 0.05), and in the COPSOQ II model 'emotional demands' (p < 0.05) and 'commitment to the workplace' (p < 0.005) were significant as well. 'Degrees of freedom' was omitted by the developers in the revised COPSOQ II. Reintroducing it into the COPSOQ II model did not alter the existing associations, but pointed out 'degrees of freedom' to be an additional important dimension (p < 0.05). The COPSOQ II model with 'degrees of freedom' included also had the best data fit. 
The results suggested the COPSOQ II to be better predictive than COPSOQ I for a high NFR, but also indicated that 'degrees of freedom' should be included into the COPSOQ II when studying the NFR as outcome parameter.},
  author       = {Kiss, Philippe and De Meester, Marc and Kruse, André and Chavée, Brigitte and Braeckman, Lutgart},
  issn         = {0340-0131},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL ARCHIVES OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH},
  keywords     = {COPSOQ,Psychosocial work environment,Degrees of freedom,2-YEAR PROSPECTIVE COHORT,SICKNESS ABSENCE,TRUCK DRIVERS,JOB STRAIN,HEALTH,FATIGUE,SCALE,RELIABILITY,ENVIRONMENT,VALIDITY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {17--24},
  title        = {Comparison between the first and second versions of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire: psychosocial risk factors for a high need for recovery after work},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-012-0741-0},
  volume       = {86},
  year         = {2013},
}

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