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The Medicago genome provides insight into the evolution of rhizobial symbioses

(2011) NATURE. 480(7378). p.520-524
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Bioinformatics: from nucleotids to networks (N2N)
Abstract
Legumes (Fabaceae or Leguminosae) are unique among cultivated plants for their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation with rhizobial bacteria, a process that takes place in a specialized structure known as the nodule. Legumes belong to one of the two main groups of eurosids, the Fabidae, which includes most species capable of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation(1). Legumes comprise several evolutionary lineages derived from a common ancestor 60 million years ago (Myr ago). Papilionoids are the largest clade, dating nearly to the origin of legumes and containing most cultivated species(2). Medicago truncatula is a long-established model for the study of legume biology. Here we describe the draft sequence of the M. truncatula euchromatin based on a recently completed BAC assembly supplemented with Illumina shotgun sequence, together capturing similar to 94% of all M. truncatula genes. A whole-genome duplication (WGD) approximately 58 Myr ago had a major role in shaping the M. truncatula genome and thereby contributed to the evolution of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. Subsequent to the WGD, the M. truncatula genome experienced higher levels of rearrangement than two other sequenced legumes, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus. M. truncatula is a close relative of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a widely cultivated crop with limited genomics tools and complex autotetraploid genetics. As such, the M. truncatula genome sequence provides significant opportunities to expand alfalfa's genomic toolbox.
Keywords
EXPRESSION, LEGUMINOSAE, TETRAPLOIDY, DUPLICATIONS, FLAVONOID BIOSYNTHESIS, SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION, GENES, ARABIDOPSIS, TRUNCATULA, SEQUENCE

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Citation

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MLA
Young, Nevin D, Frédéric Debellé, Giles ED Oldroyd, et al. “The Medicago Genome Provides Insight into the Evolution of Rhizobial Symbioses.” NATURE 480.7378 (2011): 520–524. Print.
APA
Young, N. D., Debellé, F., Oldroyd, G. E., Geurts, R., Cannon, S. B., Udvardi, M. K., Benedito, V. A., et al. (2011). The Medicago genome provides insight into the evolution of rhizobial symbioses. NATURE, 480(7378), 520–524.
Chicago author-date
Young, Nevin D, Frédéric Debellé, Giles ED Oldroyd, Rene Geurts, Steven B Cannon, Michael K Udvardi, Vagner A Benedito, et al. 2011. “The Medicago Genome Provides Insight into the Evolution of Rhizobial Symbioses.” Nature 480 (7378): 520–524.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Young, Nevin D, Frédéric Debellé, Giles ED Oldroyd, Rene Geurts, Steven B Cannon, Michael K Udvardi, Vagner A Benedito, Klaus FX Mayer, Jérôme Gouzy, Heiko Schoof, Yves Van de Peer, Sebastian Proost, Douglas R Cook, Blake C Meyers, Manuel Spannagl, Foo Cheung, Stéphane De Mita, Vivek Krishnakumar, Heidrun Gundlach, Shiguo Zhou, Joann Mudge, Arvind K Bharti, Jeremy D Murray, Marina A Naoumkina, Benjamin Rosen, Kevin AT Silverstein, Haibao Tang, Stephane Rombauts, Patrick X Zhao, Peng Zhou, Valérie Barbe, Philippe Bardou, Michael Bechner, Arnaud Bellec, Anne Berger, Hélène Bergès, Shelby Bidwell, Ton Bisseling, Nathalie Choisne, Arnaud Couloux, Roxanne Denny, Shweta Deshpande, Xinbin Dai, Jeff J Doyle, Anne-Marie Dudez, Andrew D Farmer, Stéphanie Fouteau, Carolien Franken, Chrystel Gibelin, John Gish, Steven Goldstein, Alvaro J González, Pamela J Green, Asis Hallab, Marijke Hartog, Axin Hua, Sean J Humphray, Dong-Hoon Jeong, Yi Jing, Anika Jöcker, Steve M Kenton, Dong-Jin Kim, Kathrin Klee, Hongshing Lai, Chunting Lang, Shaoping Lin, Simone L Macmil, Ghislaine Magdelenat, Lucy Matthews, Jamison McCorrison, Erin L Monaghan, Jeong-Hwan Mun, Fares Z Najar, Christine Nicholson, Célilne Noirot, Majesta O’Bleness, Charles R Paule, Julie Poulain, Florent Prion, Baifang Qin, Chunmei Qu, Ernest F Retzel, Claire Riddle, Erika Sallet, Sylvie Samain, Nicolas Samson, Iryna Sanders, Olivier Saurat, Claude Scarpelli, Thomas Schiex, Béatrice Segurens, Andrew J Severin, D. Janine Sherrier, Ruihua Shi, Sarah Sims, Susan R Singer, Senjuti Sinharoy, Lieven Sterck, Agnès Viollet, Bing-Bing Wang, Keqin Wang, Mingyi Wang, Xiaohong Wang, Jens Warfsmann, Jean Weissenbach, Doug D White, Jim D White, Graham B Wiley, Patrick Wincker, Yanbo Xing, Limei Yang, Ziyun Yao, Fu Ying, Jixian Zhai, Liping Zhou, Antoine Zuber, Jean Dénarié, Richard A Dixon, Gregory D May, David C Schwartz, Jane Rogers, Francis Quétier, Christopher D Town, and Bruce A Roe. 2011. “The Medicago Genome Provides Insight into the Evolution of Rhizobial Symbioses.” Nature 480 (7378): 520–524.
Vancouver
1.
Young ND, Debellé F, Oldroyd GE, Geurts R, Cannon SB, Udvardi MK, et al. The Medicago genome provides insight into the evolution of rhizobial symbioses. NATURE. 2011;480(7378):520–4.
IEEE
[1]
N. D. Young et al., “The Medicago genome provides insight into the evolution of rhizobial symbioses,” NATURE, vol. 480, no. 7378, pp. 520–524, 2011.
@article{1993633,
  abstract     = {Legumes (Fabaceae or Leguminosae) are unique among cultivated plants for their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation with rhizobial bacteria, a process that takes place in a specialized structure known as the nodule. Legumes belong to one of the two main groups of eurosids, the Fabidae, which includes most species capable of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation(1). Legumes comprise several evolutionary lineages derived from a common ancestor 60 million years ago (Myr ago). Papilionoids are the largest clade, dating nearly to the origin of legumes and containing most cultivated species(2). Medicago truncatula is a long-established model for the study of legume biology. Here we describe the draft sequence of the M. truncatula euchromatin based on a recently completed BAC assembly supplemented with Illumina shotgun sequence, together capturing similar to 94% of all M. truncatula genes. A whole-genome duplication (WGD) approximately 58 Myr ago had a major role in shaping the M. truncatula genome and thereby contributed to the evolution of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. Subsequent to the WGD, the M. truncatula genome experienced higher levels of rearrangement than two other sequenced legumes, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus. M. truncatula is a close relative of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a widely cultivated crop with limited genomics tools and complex autotetraploid genetics. As such, the M. truncatula genome sequence provides significant opportunities to expand alfalfa's genomic toolbox.},
  author       = {Young, Nevin D and Debellé, Frédéric and Oldroyd, Giles ED and Geurts, Rene and Cannon, Steven B and Udvardi, Michael K and Benedito, Vagner A and Mayer, Klaus FX and Gouzy, Jérôme and Schoof, Heiko and Van de Peer, Yves and Proost, Sebastian and Cook, Douglas R and Meyers, Blake C and Spannagl, Manuel and Cheung, Foo and De Mita, Stéphane and Krishnakumar, Vivek and Gundlach, Heidrun and Zhou, Shiguo and Mudge, Joann and Bharti, Arvind K and Murray, Jeremy D and Naoumkina, Marina A and Rosen, Benjamin and Silverstein, Kevin AT and Tang, Haibao and Rombauts, Stephane and Zhao, Patrick X and Zhou, Peng and Barbe, Valérie and Bardou, Philippe and Bechner, Michael and Bellec, Arnaud and Berger, Anne and Bergès, Hélène and Bidwell, Shelby and Bisseling, Ton and Choisne, Nathalie and Couloux, Arnaud and Denny, Roxanne and Deshpande, Shweta and Dai, Xinbin and Doyle, Jeff J and Dudez, Anne-Marie and Farmer, Andrew D and Fouteau, Stéphanie and Franken, Carolien and Gibelin, Chrystel and Gish, John and Goldstein, Steven and González, Alvaro J and Green, Pamela J and Hallab, Asis and Hartog, Marijke and Hua, Axin and Humphray, Sean J and Jeong, Dong-Hoon and Jing, Yi and Jöcker, Anika and Kenton, Steve M and Kim, Dong-Jin and Klee, Kathrin and Lai, Hongshing and Lang, Chunting and Lin, Shaoping and Macmil, Simone L and Magdelenat, Ghislaine and Matthews, Lucy and McCorrison, Jamison and Monaghan, Erin L and Mun, Jeong-Hwan and Najar, Fares Z and Nicholson, Christine and Noirot, Célilne and O'Bleness, Majesta and Paule, Charles R and Poulain, Julie and Prion, Florent and Qin, Baifang and Qu, Chunmei and Retzel, Ernest F and Riddle, Claire and Sallet, Erika and Samain, Sylvie and Samson, Nicolas and Sanders, Iryna and Saurat, Olivier and Scarpelli, Claude and Schiex, Thomas and Segurens, Béatrice and Severin, Andrew J and Sherrier, D. Janine and Shi, Ruihua and Sims, Sarah and Singer, Susan R and Sinharoy, Senjuti and Sterck, Lieven and Viollet, Agnès and Wang, Bing-Bing and Wang, Keqin and Wang, Mingyi and Wang, Xiaohong and Warfsmann, Jens and Weissenbach, Jean and White, Doug D and White, Jim D and Wiley, Graham B and Wincker, Patrick and Xing, Yanbo and Yang, Limei and Yao, Ziyun and Ying, Fu and Zhai, Jixian and Zhou, Liping and Zuber, Antoine and Dénarié, Jean and Dixon, Richard A and May, Gregory D and Schwartz, David C and Rogers, Jane and Quétier, Francis and Town, Christopher D and Roe, Bruce A},
  issn         = {0028-0836},
  journal      = {NATURE},
  keywords     = {EXPRESSION,LEGUMINOSAE,TETRAPLOIDY,DUPLICATIONS,FLAVONOID BIOSYNTHESIS,SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION,GENES,ARABIDOPSIS,TRUNCATULA,SEQUENCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7378},
  pages        = {520--524},
  title        = {The Medicago genome provides insight into the evolution of rhizobial symbioses},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10625},
  volume       = {480},
  year         = {2011},
}

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