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Increasing physical activity in Belgian type 2 diabetes patients : a three-arm randomized controlled trial

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Abstract
Background Pedometer-based physical activity programs have been typically delivered in a group format by a behavioral expert. An alternative strategy that builds on existing interactions is delivery through individual consultation by a general practitioner (GP). These two delivery strategies have not been directly compared. Purpose To compare effectiveness of a 12-week physical activity (PA) intervention for type 2 diabetes patients delivered by a trained GP via an individual consultation or as group delivery by a behavioral expert. Method Sixty-seven primary care participants (mean age = 67.4 years, 70% male) from three Belgian general practices were randomized into three different treatment arms: (1) individual consultation (n = 22) with three PA contacts with the patient's GP; (2) group counseling (n = 21) with three PA group sessions delivered by a behavioral expert; and (3) a control arm (n = 24) receiving no intervention. Participant inclusion criteria were a parts per thousand currency sign80 years; 25-35 kg/mA(2); a parts per thousand currency sign12% HbA1c and reporting no PA limitations. Outcome measures were pedometer-determined steps/day, self-reported PA, and health parameters (weight, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, and HbA1c). Results Group counseling participants increased 1,706 steps/day over baseline significantly (p a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.05) more than other treatment arms. Moreover, they increased their self-reported PA (+82 min/day), while control arm participants showed a decrease in PA (p a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.05). Participants of the individual consultation had a decrease in waist circumference (-1.4 cm) and HbA1c (-0.32%) and a lower increase in total cholesterol (+7.2 mg/dl) compared to the other treatment arms (all p a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.05). Conclusion Group counseling in type 2 diabetes patients improved PA, whereas individual consultations had an impact on some health outcomes on the short-term.
Keywords
STYLE SELF-MANAGEMENT, LIFE-STYLE, PRIMARY-CARE, IMPAIRED GLUCOSE-TOLERANCE, CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Physician, Behavioral intervention, Physical activity, Lifestyle changes, Pedometer, ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE, ACTIVITY INTERVENTION, GENERAL-PRACTICE, GLYCEMIC CONTROL, 1ST STEP PROGRAM

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MLA
De Greef, Karlijn, Benedicte Deforche, Catrine Tudor-Locke, et al. “Increasing Physical Activity in Belgian Type 2 Diabetes Patients : a Three-arm Randomized Controlled Trial.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 18.3 (2011): 188–198. Print.
APA
De Greef, K., Deforche, B., Tudor-Locke, C., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2011). Increasing physical activity in Belgian type 2 diabetes patients : a three-arm randomized controlled trial. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE, 18(3), 188–198.
Chicago author-date
De Greef, Karlijn, Benedicte Deforche, Catrine Tudor-Locke, and Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij. 2011. “Increasing Physical Activity in Belgian Type 2 Diabetes Patients : a Three-arm Randomized Controlled Trial.” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 18 (3): 188–198.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Greef, Karlijn, Benedicte Deforche, Catrine Tudor-Locke, and Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij. 2011. “Increasing Physical Activity in Belgian Type 2 Diabetes Patients : a Three-arm Randomized Controlled Trial.” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 18 (3): 188–198.
Vancouver
1.
De Greef K, Deforche B, Tudor-Locke C, De Bourdeaudhuij I. Increasing physical activity in Belgian type 2 diabetes patients : a three-arm randomized controlled trial. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE. 2011;18(3):188–98.
IEEE
[1]
K. De Greef, B. Deforche, C. Tudor-Locke, and I. De Bourdeaudhuij, “Increasing physical activity in Belgian type 2 diabetes patients : a three-arm randomized controlled trial,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 188–198, 2011.
@article{1983455,
  abstract     = {Background Pedometer-based physical activity programs have been typically delivered in a group format by a behavioral expert. An alternative strategy that builds on existing interactions is delivery through individual consultation by a general practitioner (GP). These two delivery strategies have not been directly compared. 
Purpose To compare effectiveness of a 12-week physical activity (PA) intervention for type 2 diabetes patients delivered by a trained GP via an individual consultation or as group delivery by a behavioral expert. 
Method Sixty-seven primary care participants (mean age = 67.4 years, 70% male) from three Belgian general practices were randomized into three different treatment arms: (1) individual consultation (n = 22) with three PA contacts with the patient's GP; (2) group counseling (n = 21) with three PA group sessions delivered by a behavioral expert; and (3) a control arm (n = 24) receiving no intervention. Participant inclusion criteria were a parts per thousand currency sign80 years; 25-35 kg/mA(2); a parts per thousand currency sign12% HbA1c and reporting no PA limitations. Outcome measures were pedometer-determined steps/day, self-reported PA, and health parameters (weight, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, and HbA1c). 
Results Group counseling participants increased 1,706 steps/day over baseline significantly (p a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.05) more than other treatment arms. Moreover, they increased their self-reported PA (+82 min/day), while control arm participants showed a decrease in PA (p a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.05). Participants of the individual consultation had a decrease in waist circumference (-1.4 cm) and HbA1c (-0.32%) and a lower increase in total cholesterol (+7.2 mg/dl) compared to the other treatment arms (all p a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.05). 
Conclusion Group counseling in type 2 diabetes patients improved PA, whereas individual consultations had an impact on some health outcomes on the short-term.},
  author       = {De Greef, Karlijn and Deforche, Benedicte and Tudor-Locke, Catrine and De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse},
  issn         = {1070-5503},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE},
  keywords     = {STYLE SELF-MANAGEMENT,LIFE-STYLE,PRIMARY-CARE,IMPAIRED GLUCOSE-TOLERANCE,CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS,Diabetes mellitus type 2,Physician,Behavioral intervention,Physical activity,Lifestyle changes,Pedometer,ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE,ACTIVITY INTERVENTION,GENERAL-PRACTICE,GLYCEMIC CONTROL,1ST STEP PROGRAM},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {188--198},
  title        = {Increasing physical activity in Belgian type 2 diabetes patients : a three-arm randomized controlled trial},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-010-9124-7},
  volume       = {18},
  year         = {2011},
}

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