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Herpes simplex virus type 1 penetrates the basement membrane in human nasal respiratory mucosa

(2011) PLOS ONE. 6(7).
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Abstract
Background: Herpes simplex virus infections are highly prevalent in humans. However, the current therapeutics suffer important drawbacks such as limited results in neonates, increasing occurrence of resistance and impeded treatment of stromal infections. Remarkably, interactions of herpesviruses with human mucosa, the locus of infection, remain poorly understood and the underlying mechanisms in stromal infection remain controversial. Methodology/Principal Findings: A human model consisting of nasal respiratory mucosa explants was characterised. Viability and integrity were examined during 96 h of cultivation. HSV1-mucosa interactions were analysed. In particular, we investigated whether HSV1 is able to reach the stroma. Explant viability and integrity remained preserved. HSV1 induced rounding up and loosening of epithelial cells with very few apoptotic and necrotic cells observed. Following 16-24 h of infection, HSV1 penetrated the basement membrane and replicated in the underlying lamina propria. Conclusions/Significance: This human explant model can be used to study virus-mucosa interactions and viral mucosal invasion mechanisms. Using this model, our results provide a novel insight into the HSV1 stromal invasion mechanism and for the first time directly demonstrate that HSV1 can penetrate the basement membrane.
Keywords
IN-VITRO, BLOCKS APOPTOSIS, FLOW-CYTOMETRY, US3 PROTEIN-KINASE, CELLS, ORGAN-CULTURE, VIVO, DISEASE, EXPLANTS, GENITAL-INFECTION

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Chicago
Glorieux, Sarah, Claus Bachert, Herman Favoreel, Annelies Vandekerckhove, Lennert Steukers, Anamaria Rekecki, Wim Van Den Broeck, et al. 2011. “Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Penetrates the Basement Membrane in Human Nasal Respiratory Mucosa.” Plos One 6 (7).
APA
Glorieux, S., Bachert, C., Favoreel, H., Vandekerckhove, A., Steukers, L., Rekecki, A., Van Den Broeck, W., et al. (2011). Herpes simplex virus type 1 penetrates the basement membrane in human nasal respiratory mucosa. PLOS ONE, 6(7).
Vancouver
1.
Glorieux S, Bachert C, Favoreel H, Vandekerckhove A, Steukers L, Rekecki A, et al. Herpes simplex virus type 1 penetrates the basement membrane in human nasal respiratory mucosa. PLOS ONE. 2011;6(7).
MLA
Glorieux, Sarah, Claus Bachert, Herman Favoreel, et al. “Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Penetrates the Basement Membrane in Human Nasal Respiratory Mucosa.” PLOS ONE 6.7 (2011): n. pag. Print.
@article{1982904,
  abstract     = {Background: Herpes simplex virus infections are highly prevalent in humans. However, the current therapeutics suffer important drawbacks such as limited results in neonates, increasing occurrence of resistance and impeded treatment of stromal infections. Remarkably, interactions of herpesviruses with human mucosa, the locus of infection, remain poorly understood and the underlying mechanisms in stromal infection remain controversial. 
Methodology/Principal Findings: A human model consisting of nasal respiratory mucosa explants was characterised. Viability and integrity were examined during 96 h of cultivation. HSV1-mucosa interactions were analysed. In particular, we investigated whether HSV1 is able to reach the stroma. Explant viability and integrity remained preserved. HSV1 induced rounding up and loosening of epithelial cells with very few apoptotic and necrotic cells observed. Following 16-24 h of infection, HSV1 penetrated the basement membrane and replicated in the underlying lamina propria. 
Conclusions/Significance: This human explant model can be used to study virus-mucosa interactions and viral mucosal invasion mechanisms. Using this model, our results provide a novel insight into the HSV1 stromal invasion mechanism and for the first time directly demonstrate that HSV1 can penetrate the basement membrane.},
  articleno    = {e22160},
  author       = {Glorieux, Sarah and Bachert, Claus and Favoreel, Herman and Vandekerckhove, Annelies and Steukers, Lennert and Rekecki, Anamaria and Van Den Broeck, Wim and Goossens, Joline and Croubels, Siska and Clayton, Reginald F and Nauwynck, Hans},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keyword      = {IN-VITRO,BLOCKS APOPTOSIS,FLOW-CYTOMETRY,US3 PROTEIN-KINASE,CELLS,ORGAN-CULTURE,VIVO,DISEASE,EXPLANTS,GENITAL-INFECTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {10},
  title        = {Herpes simplex virus type 1 penetrates the basement membrane in human nasal respiratory mucosa},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022160},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2011},
}

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