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Genetic diversity assessment of sub-samples of cacao, Theobroma cacao L., collections in West Africa using simple sequence repeat markers

(2009) TREE GENETICS & GENOMES. 5(4). p.699-711
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Abstract
Knowledge of genebank and on-farm genetic diversity, particularly in an introduced crop species, is crucial to the management and utilization of the genetic resources available. Microsatellite markers were used to determine genetic diversity in 574 accessions of cacao, Theobroma cacao L., representing eight groups covering parental populations in West Africa, genebank, and farmers' populations in Nigeria. From the 12 microsatellite markers used, a total of 144 alleles were detected with a mean allelic richness of 4.39 alleles/locus. The largest genetic diversity was found in the Upper Amazon parent population (H (nb) = 0.730), followed by the 1944 Posnette's Introduction (H (nb) = 0.704), and was lowest in the Local parent population (H (nb) = 0.471). Gene diversity was appreciably high in the farmers' populations (H (nb) = 0.563-0.624); however, the effective number of alleles was lower than that found in the genebank's Posnette's population. Fixation index estimates indicated deficiency of heterozygotes in the Upper Amazon and the Local parent populations (F (is) = 0.209 and 0.160, respectively), and excess of heterozygotes in the Trinitario parent population (F (is) = -0.341). The presence of inbreeding in the Local parent populations and substructure (Wahlund effect) in the Upper Amazon were suggested for the deficiency of heterozygotes observed. Non-significant genetic differentiation observed between the genebank's and farmers' populations indicated significant impact of national breeding programs on varieties grown in farmers' plantations. From this study, we showed that appreciable genetic diversity was present in on-farm and field genebank collections of cacao that can be exploited for crop improvement in West Africa. Suggestions for future conservation of on-farm genetic diversity and local landraces are further discussed.
Keywords
Gene diversity, Cacao, Allelic diversity, Rarefaction, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, POPULATION-STRUCTURE, MICROSATELLITE MARKERS, LINKAGE MAP, COCOA, RFLP, GERMPLASM, ALLELES, NUMBER, TESTS, GHANA

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Chicago
Aikpokpodion, Peter O, Juan C Motamayor, Victor O Adetimirin, Yaw Adu-Ampomah, Ivan Ingelbrecht, Albertus B Eskes, Raymond J Schnell, and Maria Kolesnikova-Allen. 2009. “Genetic Diversity Assessment of Sub-samples of Cacao, Theobroma Cacao L., Collections in West Africa Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers.” Tree Genetics & Genomes 5 (4): 699–711.
APA
Aikpokpodion, P. O., Motamayor, J. C., Adetimirin, V. O., Adu-Ampomah, Y., Ingelbrecht, I., Eskes, A. B., Schnell, R. J., et al. (2009). Genetic diversity assessment of sub-samples of cacao, Theobroma cacao L., collections in West Africa using simple sequence repeat markers. TREE GENETICS & GENOMES, 5(4), 699–711.
Vancouver
1.
Aikpokpodion PO, Motamayor JC, Adetimirin VO, Adu-Ampomah Y, Ingelbrecht I, Eskes AB, et al. Genetic diversity assessment of sub-samples of cacao, Theobroma cacao L., collections in West Africa using simple sequence repeat markers. TREE GENETICS & GENOMES. 2009;5(4):699–711.
MLA
Aikpokpodion, Peter O, Juan C Motamayor, Victor O Adetimirin, et al. “Genetic Diversity Assessment of Sub-samples of Cacao, Theobroma Cacao L., Collections in West Africa Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers.” TREE GENETICS & GENOMES 5.4 (2009): 699–711. Print.
@article{1982070,
  abstract     = {Knowledge of genebank and on-farm genetic diversity, particularly in an introduced crop species, is crucial to the management and utilization of the genetic resources available. Microsatellite markers were used to determine genetic diversity in 574 accessions of cacao, Theobroma cacao L., representing eight groups covering parental populations in West Africa, genebank, and farmers' populations in Nigeria. From the 12 microsatellite markers used, a total of 144 alleles were detected with a mean allelic richness of 4.39 alleles/locus. The largest genetic diversity was found in the Upper Amazon parent population (H (nb) = 0.730), followed by the 1944 Posnette's Introduction (H (nb) = 0.704), and was lowest in the Local parent population (H (nb) = 0.471). Gene diversity was appreciably high in the farmers' populations (H (nb) = 0.563-0.624); however, the effective number of alleles was lower than that found in the genebank's Posnette's population. Fixation index estimates indicated deficiency of heterozygotes in the Upper Amazon and the Local parent populations (F (is) = 0.209 and 0.160, respectively), and excess of heterozygotes in the Trinitario parent population (F (is) = -0.341). The presence of inbreeding in the Local parent populations and substructure (Wahlund effect) in the Upper Amazon were suggested for the deficiency of heterozygotes observed. Non-significant genetic differentiation observed between the genebank's and farmers' populations indicated significant impact of national breeding programs on varieties grown in farmers' plantations. From this study, we showed that appreciable genetic diversity was present in on-farm and field genebank collections of cacao that can be exploited for crop improvement in West Africa. Suggestions for future conservation of on-farm genetic diversity and local landraces are further discussed.},
  author       = {Aikpokpodion, Peter O and Motamayor, Juan C and Adetimirin, Victor O and Adu-Ampomah, Yaw and Ingelbrecht, Ivan and Eskes, Albertus B and Schnell, Raymond J and Kolesnikova-Allen, Maria},
  issn         = {1614-2942},
  journal      = {TREE GENETICS \& GENOMES},
  keyword      = {Gene diversity,Cacao,Allelic diversity,Rarefaction,Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium,POPULATION-STRUCTURE,MICROSATELLITE MARKERS,LINKAGE MAP,COCOA,RFLP,GERMPLASM,ALLELES,NUMBER,TESTS,GHANA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {699--711},
  title        = {Genetic diversity assessment of sub-samples of cacao, Theobroma cacao L., collections in West Africa using simple sequence repeat markers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11295-009-0221-1},
  volume       = {5},
  year         = {2009},
}

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