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Passive and middle in Indo-European: reconstructing the early Vedic passive paradigm

Leonid Kulikov (UGent)
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Abstract
This paper deals with the passive function of the middle diathesis in Vedic Sanskrit, one of the most ancient attested Indo-European languages. It gives a general survey of passive formations of the three main tense systems (present, aorist and perfect) and discusses forms which are traditionally considered non-characterized middle formations (‘bare middles’). It is argued that these forms should be grouped with those formations which have specialized markers of passive. I further inventories the actually attested present passives with the suffix -yá-, discussing the defective character of the passive paradigm of the present, aorist and perfect tense systems. In conclusion, I briefly discuss possible Proto-Indo-European sources of the Vedic passive paradigm and the historical relationships between the categories of perfect, stative and middle, as well as perspectives of a diachronic typological study of valency-changing categories, such as passive and causative, outlining the main tendencies in the evolution of the Proto-Indo-European middle.
Keywords
Vedic, injunctive, subjunctive, participle, causative, grammar, Rgveda, Atharvaveda, middle, passive, diathesis, Proto-Indo-European, stative, perfect, aorist, present, optative

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Chicago
Kulikov, Leonid. 2006. “Passive and Middle in Indo-European: Reconstructing the Early Vedic Passive Paradigm.” In Passivization and Typology : Form and Function, ed. Werner Abraham and Larisa Leisiö, 68:62–81. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
APA
Kulikov, L. (2006). Passive and middle in Indo-European: reconstructing the early Vedic passive paradigm. In W. Abraham & L. Leisiö (Eds.), Passivization and typology : form and function (Vol. 68, pp. 62–81). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Vancouver
1.
Kulikov L. Passive and middle in Indo-European: reconstructing the early Vedic passive paradigm. In: Abraham W, Leisiö L, editors. Passivization and typology : form and function. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2006. p. 62–81.
MLA
Kulikov, Leonid. “Passive and Middle in Indo-European: Reconstructing the Early Vedic Passive Paradigm.” Passivization and Typology : Form and Function. Ed. Werner Abraham & Larisa Leisiö. Vol. 68. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2006. 62–81. Print.
@incollection{1976197,
  abstract     = {This paper deals with the passive function of the middle diathesis in Vedic Sanskrit, one of the most ancient attested Indo-European languages. It gives a general survey of passive formations of the three main tense systems (present, aorist and perfect) and discusses forms which are traditionally considered non-characterized middle formations ({\textquoteleft}bare middles{\textquoteright}). It is argued that these forms should be grouped with those formations which have specialized markers of passive. I further inventories the actually attested present passives with the suffix -y{\'a}-, discussing the defective character of the passive paradigm of the present, aorist and perfect tense systems. In conclusion, I briefly discuss possible Proto-Indo-European sources of the Vedic passive paradigm and the historical relationships between the categories of perfect, stative and middle, as well as perspectives of a diachronic typological study of valency-changing categories, such as passive and causative, outlining the main tendencies in the evolution of the Proto-Indo-European middle.},
  author       = {Kulikov, Leonid},
  booktitle    = {Passivization and typology : form and function},
  editor       = {Abraham , Werner and Leisi{\"o}, Larisa},
  isbn         = {9789027229809},
  keyword      = {Vedic,injunctive,subjunctive,participle,causative,grammar,Rgveda,Atharvaveda,middle,passive,diathesis,Proto-Indo-European,stative,perfect,aorist,present,optative},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {62--81},
  publisher    = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
  series       = {TYPOLOGICAL STUDIES IN LANGUAGE},
  title        = {Passive and middle in Indo-European: reconstructing the early Vedic passive paradigm},
  volume       = {68},
  year         = {2006},
}