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Gender identity disorder in twins: a review of the case report literature

(2012) JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE. 9(3). p.751-757
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Organization
Abstract
Introduction. The etiology of gender identity disorder (GID) remains largely unknown. In recent literature, increased attention has been attributed to possible biological factors in addition to psychological variables. Aim. To review the current literature on case studies of twins concordant or discordant for GID. Methods. A systematic, comprehensive literature review. Results. Of 23 monozygotic female and male twins, nine (39.1%) were concordant for GID; in contrast, none of the 21 same-sex dizygotic female and male twins were concordant for GID, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.005). Of the seven opposite-sex twins, all were discordant for GID. Conclusions. These findings suggest a role for genetic factors in the development of GID.
Keywords
DYSPHORIA, FAMILY, CHILD, CONCORDANT, PAIRS DISCORDANT, SEXUAL ORIENTATION, MONOZYGOTIC TWINS, TO-MALE TRANSSEXUALISM, Transsexualism, Biologic Factors in GID, Genetics, Twins, Gender Identity Disorder, SAMPLE, GIRLS

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Chicago
HEYLENS, GUNTER, GRETA DE CUYPERE, Kenneth J Zucker, Cleo Schelfaut, Els Elaut, Heidi Vanden Bossche, Elfride De Baere, and Guy T’Sjoen. 2012. “Gender Identity Disorder in Twins: a Review of the Case Report Literature.” Journal of Sexual Medicine 9 (3): 751–757.
APA
HEYLENS, G., DE CUYPERE, G., Zucker, K. J., Schelfaut, C., Elaut, E., Vanden Bossche, H., De Baere, E., et al. (2012). Gender identity disorder in twins: a review of the case report literature. JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, 9(3), 751–757.
Vancouver
1.
HEYLENS G, DE CUYPERE G, Zucker KJ, Schelfaut C, Elaut E, Vanden Bossche H, et al. Gender identity disorder in twins: a review of the case report literature. JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE. 2012;9(3):751–7.
MLA
HEYLENS, GUNTER, GRETA DE CUYPERE, Kenneth J Zucker, et al. “Gender Identity Disorder in Twins: a Review of the Case Report Literature.” JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE 9.3 (2012): 751–757. Print.
@article{1974611,
  abstract     = {Introduction. The etiology of gender identity disorder (GID) remains largely unknown. In recent literature, increased attention has been attributed to possible biological factors in addition to psychological variables. 
Aim. To review the current literature on case studies of twins concordant or discordant for GID. 
Methods. A systematic, comprehensive literature review. 
Results. Of 23 monozygotic female and male twins, nine (39.1\%) were concordant for GID; in contrast, none of the 21 same-sex dizygotic female and male twins were concordant for GID, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.005). Of the seven opposite-sex twins, all were discordant for GID. 
Conclusions. These findings suggest a role for genetic factors in the development of GID.},
  author       = {HEYLENS, GUNTER and DE CUYPERE, GRETA and Zucker, Kenneth J and Schelfaut, Cleo and Elaut, Els and Vanden Bossche, Heidi and De Baere, Elfride and T'Sjoen, Guy},
  issn         = {1743-6095},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE},
  keyword      = {DYSPHORIA,FAMILY,CHILD,CONCORDANT,PAIRS DISCORDANT,SEXUAL ORIENTATION,MONOZYGOTIC TWINS,TO-MALE TRANSSEXUALISM,Transsexualism,Biologic Factors in GID,Genetics,Twins,Gender Identity Disorder,SAMPLE,GIRLS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {751--757},
  title        = {Gender identity disorder in twins: a review of the case report literature},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02567.x},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2012},
}

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