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Horizontal gene transfer in nematodes: a catalyst for plant parasitism?

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Abstract
The origin of plant parasitism within the phylum Nematoda is intriguing. The ability to parasitize plants has originated at least three times independently during nematode evolution and, as more molecular data has emerged, it has become clear that multiple instances of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria and fungi have played a crucial role in the nematode’s adaptation to this new lifestyle. The first reported HGT cases in plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) were genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Other putative examples of HGT were subsequently described, including genes that may be involved in the modulation of the plant’s defense system, the establishment of a nematode feeding site and the synthesis or processing of nutrients. Although in many cases it is difficult to pinpoint the donor organism, candidate donors are usually soil dwelling and are either plant-pathogenic or plant-associated microorganisms, hence occupying the same ecological niche as the nematodes. The exact mechanisms of transfer are unknown, although close contacts with donor microorganisms, such as symbiotic or trophic interactions, are a possibility. The widespread occurrence of horizontally transferred genes in evolutionarily independent plant-parasitic nematode lineages suggests that HGT may be a prerequisite for successful plant parasitism in nematodes.
Keywords
EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS, PINE WOOD NEMATODE, ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES, BURSAPHELENCHUS-XYLOPHILUS, HETERODERA-GLYCINES, CELL-WALL, MELOIDOGYNE-INCOGNITA, GLOBODERA-ROSTOCHIENSIS, ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA, CHORISMATE MUTASE

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Chicago
Haegeman, Annelies, John T Jones, and Etienne GJ Danchin. 2011. “Horizontal Gene Transfer in Nematodes: a Catalyst for Plant Parasitism?” Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions 24 (8): 879–887.
APA
Haegeman, Annelies, Jones, J. T., & Danchin, E. G. (2011). Horizontal gene transfer in nematodes: a catalyst for plant parasitism? MOLECULAR PLANT-MICROBE INTERACTIONS, 24(8), 879–887.
Vancouver
1.
Haegeman A, Jones JT, Danchin EG. Horizontal gene transfer in nematodes: a catalyst for plant parasitism? MOLECULAR PLANT-MICROBE INTERACTIONS. 2011;24(8):879–87.
MLA
Haegeman, Annelies, John T Jones, and Etienne GJ Danchin. “Horizontal Gene Transfer in Nematodes: a Catalyst for Plant Parasitism?” MOLECULAR PLANT-MICROBE INTERACTIONS 24.8 (2011): 879–887. Print.
@article{1971280,
  abstract     = {The origin of plant parasitism within the phylum Nematoda is intriguing. The ability to parasitize plants has originated at least three times independently during nematode evolution and, as more molecular data has emerged, it has become clear that multiple instances of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria and fungi have played a crucial role in the nematode{\textquoteright}s adaptation to this new lifestyle. The first reported HGT cases in plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) were genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Other putative examples of HGT were subsequently described, including genes that may be involved in the modulation of the plant{\textquoteright}s defense system, the establishment of a nematode feeding site and the synthesis or processing of nutrients. Although in many cases it is difficult to pinpoint the donor organism, candidate donors are usually soil dwelling and are either plant-pathogenic or plant-associated microorganisms, hence occupying the same ecological niche as the nematodes. The exact mechanisms of transfer are unknown, although close contacts with donor microorganisms, such as symbiotic or trophic interactions, are a possibility. The widespread occurrence of horizontally transferred genes in evolutionarily independent plant-parasitic nematode lineages suggests that HGT may be a prerequisite for successful plant parasitism in nematodes.},
  author       = {Haegeman, Annelies and Jones, John T and Danchin, Etienne GJ},
  issn         = {0894-0282},
  journal      = {MOLECULAR PLANT-MICROBE INTERACTIONS},
  keyword      = {EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS,PINE WOOD NEMATODE,ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES,BURSAPHELENCHUS-XYLOPHILUS,HETERODERA-GLYCINES,CELL-WALL,MELOIDOGYNE-INCOGNITA,GLOBODERA-ROSTOCHIENSIS,ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA,CHORISMATE MUTASE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {879--887},
  title        = {Horizontal gene transfer in nematodes: a catalyst for plant parasitism?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-03-11-005},
  volume       = {24},
  year         = {2011},
}

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