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A long term effects of conservation agriculture technology on sustainability and profitability of soil and water management and crop productivity in the northern Ethiopian highlands

Tesfay Araya Weldeslassie UGent, Wim Cornelis UGent, Jan Nyssen UGent, B Govaerts, Fekadu Getnet, Hans Bauer, D Raes, Kindeya Gebrehiwot, Teklit Yohannes and Jozef Deckers (2011) Water 2011, Abstracts. p.21-22
abstract
Background: Conservation Agriculture (CA) technology is one of the options to curb problems arise from high runoff rates, soil erosion, period drought, period water logging in vertisols and low crop productivity in Northern highlands of Ethiopia. Hence, a long-term tillage experiment has been carried out (2005 to 2010) on a Vertisol to quantify changes in runoff, soil loss and crop yield due to Conservation Agriculture (CA) in the sub-humid Dogua Tembien district of the Northern highlands of Ethiopia. Methods and Materials: The experimental layout was implemented in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were (i) permanent raised bed (PB) in a furrow and bed system with 30% standing crop residue retention and no-tillage on top of the bed, (ii) reduced tillage (RT), with ploughing once at sowing with 30% standing crop residue retention and contour furrows made at 1.5m distance interval, and (iii) conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of 3 tillage operations and removal of crop residues. All ploughing, as well as refreshing of the furrows of the permanent raised beds when sowing, was done using the local ard plough mahresha. Crops planted during the five years were wheat, grass pea, wheat, hanfets (wheat and barley sown together) and grass pea. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year (2007) at 2 L/ha before planting to control pre-emergent weed in PB and TER. Runoff and soil loss were measured in plastic sheet lined collector trenches, which were located at the lower end of each plot. Crop stands were evaluated with local farmers and NDVI was measured on the spot at several phenological stages, using green seeker. Result and Discussion: Significantly different (p<0.05) mean soil losses of 14, 17 and 24 t ha-1 y-1 were recorded for PB, RT and CT, respectively. Similarly, the mean runoff during the rainy seasons (three months) of five study periods was 900, 1011 and 1091 m3 ha-1 y-1 from plots with PB, RT and CT, respectively. Five years mean runoff coefficients were 23, 26 and 28% in PB, RT and CT, respectively. The farmers‘ evaluation of crop performance in three years (2008-2010) showed a significantly higher score for PB (6/10) and least for CT (4.8/10). The NDVI of wheat (2008) was significantly higher in PB followed by RT up to 85 days after planting as compare to CT. However, after 85 days from planting CT was higher than the others due to wheat on PB was matured and dried earlier than CT. The growth of wheat in CT was slower. Plant height of wheat (2010) was significantly higher in PB throughout the growing season. Although improvements in crop yield were observed, a period of at least four years of cropping was required before they became significant. Conclusion: Overall, the permanent raised bed and reduced tillage systems significantly reduced sediment loss and runoff, and increased crop yield. It is suggested that these tillage techniques, using the local plough without modifications, be implemented widely.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
conference
publication status
published
subject
keyword
permanent raised bed, crop residue, conservation agriculture, reduced tillage
in
Water 2011, Abstracts
pages
21 - 22
publisher
VLIR UOS - Mekelle University IUC Programme
place of publication
Mekelle, Ethiopia
conference name
International congress Water 2011 : Integrated water resources management in tropical and subtropical drylands
conference location
Mekelle, Ethiopia
conference start
2011-09-19
conference end
2011-09-26
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
C3
id
1969120
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-1969120
date created
2011-12-16 16:33:17
date last changed
2011-12-19 08:57:44
@inproceedings{1969120,
  abstract     = {Background: Conservation Agriculture (CA) technology is one of the options to curb problems arise from high runoff rates, soil erosion, period drought, period water logging in vertisols and low crop productivity in Northern highlands of Ethiopia. Hence, a long-term tillage experiment has been carried out (2005 to 2010) on a Vertisol to quantify changes in runoff, soil loss and crop yield due to Conservation Agriculture (CA) in the sub-humid Dogua Tembien district of the Northern highlands of Ethiopia.
Methods and Materials: The experimental layout was implemented in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were (i) permanent raised bed (PB) in a furrow and bed system with 30\% standing crop residue retention and no-tillage on top of the bed, (ii) reduced tillage (RT), with ploughing once at sowing with 30\% standing crop residue retention and contour furrows made at 1.5m distance interval, and (iii) conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of 3 tillage operations and removal of crop residues. All ploughing, as well as refreshing of the furrows of the permanent raised beds when sowing, was done using the local ard plough mahresha. Crops planted during the five years were wheat, grass pea, wheat, hanfets (wheat and barley sown together) and grass pea. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year (2007) at 2 L/ha before planting to control pre-emergent weed in PB and TER. Runoff and soil loss were measured in plastic sheet lined collector trenches, which were located at the lower end of each plot. Crop stands were evaluated with local farmers and NDVI was measured on the spot at several phenological stages, using green seeker.
Result and Discussion: Significantly different (p{\textlangle}0.05) mean soil losses of 14, 17 and 24 t ha-1 y-1 were recorded for PB, RT and CT, respectively. Similarly, the mean runoff during the rainy seasons (three months) of five study periods was 900, 1011 and 1091 m3 ha-1 y-1 from plots with PB, RT and CT, respectively. Five years mean runoff coefficients were 23, 26 and 28\% in PB, RT and CT, respectively. The farmers{\textquoteleft} evaluation of crop performance in three years (2008-2010) showed a significantly higher score for PB (6/10) and least for CT (4.8/10). The NDVI of wheat (2008) was significantly higher in PB followed by RT up to 85 days after planting as compare to CT. However, after 85 days from planting CT was higher than the others due to wheat on PB was matured and dried earlier than CT. The growth of wheat in CT was slower. Plant height of wheat (2010) was significantly higher in PB throughout the growing season. Although improvements in crop yield were observed, a period of at least four years of cropping was required before they became significant.
Conclusion: Overall, the permanent raised bed and reduced tillage systems significantly reduced sediment loss and runoff, and increased crop yield. It is suggested that these tillage techniques, using the local plough without modifications, be implemented widely.},
  author       = {Araya Weldeslassie, Tesfay and Cornelis, Wim and Nyssen, Jan and Govaerts, B and Getnet, Fekadu and Bauer, Hans and Raes, D and Gebrehiwot, Kindeya and Yohannes, Teklit and Deckers, Jozef},
  booktitle    = {Water 2011, Abstracts},
  keyword      = {permanent raised bed,crop residue,conservation agriculture,reduced tillage},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Mekelle, Ethiopia},
  pages        = {21--22},
  publisher    = {VLIR UOS - Mekelle University IUC Programme},
  title        = {A long term effects of conservation agriculture technology on sustainability and profitability of soil and water management and crop productivity in the northern Ethiopian highlands},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
Araya Weldeslassie, Tesfay, Wim Cornelis, Jan Nyssen, B Govaerts, Fekadu Getnet, Hans Bauer, D Raes, Kindeya Gebrehiwot, Teklit Yohannes, and Jozef Deckers. 2011. “A Long Term Effects of Conservation Agriculture Technology on Sustainability and Profitability of Soil and Water Management and Crop Productivity in the Northern Ethiopian Highlands.” In Water 2011, Abstracts, 21–22. Mekelle, Ethiopia: VLIR UOS - Mekelle University IUC Programme.
APA
Araya Weldeslassie, T., Cornelis, W., Nyssen, J., Govaerts, B., Getnet, F., Bauer, H., Raes, D., et al. (2011). A long term effects of conservation agriculture technology on sustainability and profitability of soil and water management and crop productivity in the northern Ethiopian highlands. Water 2011, Abstracts (pp. 21–22). Presented at the International congress Water 2011 : Integrated water resources management in tropical and subtropical drylands, Mekelle, Ethiopia: VLIR UOS - Mekelle University IUC Programme.
Vancouver
1.
Araya Weldeslassie T, Cornelis W, Nyssen J, Govaerts B, Getnet F, Bauer H, et al. A long term effects of conservation agriculture technology on sustainability and profitability of soil and water management and crop productivity in the northern Ethiopian highlands. Water 2011, Abstracts. Mekelle, Ethiopia: VLIR UOS - Mekelle University IUC Programme; 2011. p. 21–2.
MLA
Araya Weldeslassie, Tesfay, Wim Cornelis, Jan Nyssen, et al. “A Long Term Effects of Conservation Agriculture Technology on Sustainability and Profitability of Soil and Water Management and Crop Productivity in the Northern Ethiopian Highlands.” Water 2011, Abstracts. Mekelle, Ethiopia: VLIR UOS - Mekelle University IUC Programme, 2011. 21–22. Print.