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Exploring giant genera and their satellites: tales from the C3 Cyperus universe

Isabel Larridon UGent (2011)
abstract
Cyperaceae (or sedges) form the third largest plant family of the monocots with ca. 5400 species and 106 genera. Cyperaceae did not only evolve into a large diversity of genera and species in the tropics and subtropics, but they are also often dominantly present in the vegetation of temperate and arctic regions. Sedges contribute significantly to the botanical diversity of wetlands. The Cyperus clade (Cyperoideae, Cypereae) includes ca. 950 species of grass-like plants with complex inflorescences. Species of the Cyperus clade either use C3 photosynthesis (linked with eucyperoid anatomy) (C3 Cyperus), or C4 photosynthesis (linked with chlorocyperoid anatomy) (C4 Cyperus). This PhD project focusses C3 Cyperus. The aim is to create a detailed molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of C3 Cyperus in order to establish (1) how C3 Cyperus relates to C4 Cyperus, and (2) how the different C3 Cyperus taxa relate to one another. In this study, both nuclear ribosomal (ETS1f) and plastid (rpl32-trnL and trnH-psbA) DNA markers are used to create a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis. Molecular phylogenetic data are combined with carbon isotope analysis (D13C), morphology, embryography, floral and spikelet ontogeny, anatomy and biogeography. In our opinion, the Cyperus clade includes two genera Androtrichum and Cyperus (s.l.). C3 Cyperus forms a grade at the basis of Cyperus (C3 photosynthesis is the plesiomorphic state for the Cyperus clade), in which a well-supported monophyletic clade is nested encompassing the C4 Cyperus species. C3 Cyperus (ca. 190 spp.) is less species rich and less diverse than C4 Cyperus (ca. 760 spp.). The small genera Courtoisina and Oxycaryum are included in C3 Cyperus as new sections, which also contain Cyperus s.s. species with intermediate morphologies. The small genus Kyllingiella is included in the existing C3 Cyperus section Leucocephali. These taxa were previously recognised at generic level due to specific characteristics which differentiate them from Cyperus s.s. The currently recognised sections in C3 Cyperus are generally well-supported in the molecular phylogeny, however, ‘Cyperus sect. Glutinosi’ and ‘C. sect. Dichostylis’ sensu Kükenthal are heterogeneous as they include both C3 and C4 species. We aim to provide a revision and a preliminary new classification of C3 Cyperus with clearly characterised monophyletic groups.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
promoter
UGent and UGent
organization
year
type
dissertation (monograph)
subject
keyword
C3 Cyperus, revision, taxonomy, nomenclature, Cyperaceae, molecular phylogeny
pages
402 pages
publisher
Ghent University. Faculty of Sciences
place of publication
Ghent, Belgium
defense location
Gent : Faculteit Wetenschappen (K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, auditorium 4)
defense date
2011-07-01 16:00
ISBN
9789490695781
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
D1
additional info
dissertation consists of copyrighted material
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
1968515
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-1968515
date created
2011-12-15 16:36:34
date last changed
2011-12-21 11:14:58
@phdthesis{1968515,
  abstract     = {Cyperaceae (or sedges) form the third largest plant family of the monocots with ca. 5400 species and 106 genera. Cyperaceae did not only evolve into a large diversity of genera and species in the tropics and subtropics, but they are also often dominantly present in the vegetation of temperate and arctic regions. Sedges contribute significantly to the botanical diversity of wetlands. The Cyperus clade (Cyperoideae, Cypereae) includes ca. 950 species of grass-like plants with complex inflorescences. Species of the Cyperus clade either use C3 photosynthesis (linked with eucyperoid anatomy) (C3 Cyperus), or C4 photosynthesis (linked with chlorocyperoid anatomy) (C4 Cyperus). This PhD project focusses C3 Cyperus. The aim is to create a detailed molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of C3 Cyperus in order
to establish (1) how C3 Cyperus relates to C4 Cyperus, and (2) how the different C3 Cyperus taxa relate to one another. In this study, both nuclear ribosomal (ETS1f) and plastid (rpl32-trnL and trnH-psbA) DNA markers are used to create a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis. Molecular phylogenetic data are combined with carbon isotope analysis (D13C), morphology, embryography, floral and spikelet ontogeny, anatomy and biogeography. In our opinion, the Cyperus clade includes two genera Androtrichum and Cyperus (s.l.). C3 Cyperus forms a grade at the basis of Cyperus (C3 photosynthesis is the plesiomorphic state for the Cyperus clade), in which a well-supported monophyletic clade is nested encompassing the C4 Cyperus species. C3 Cyperus (ca. 190 spp.) is less species rich and less diverse than C4 Cyperus (ca. 760 spp.). The small genera Courtoisina and Oxycaryum are included in C3 Cyperus as new sections, which also contain Cyperus s.s. species with intermediate morphologies. The small genus Kyllingiella is included in the existing C3 Cyperus section Leucocephali. These taxa were previously recognised at generic level due to specific characteristics which differentiate them from Cyperus s.s. The currently recognised sections in C3 Cyperus are generally well-supported in the molecular phylogeny, however, {\textquoteleft}Cyperus sect. Glutinosi{\textquoteright} and {\textquoteleft}C. sect. Dichostylis{\textquoteright} sensu K{\"u}kenthal are heterogeneous as they include both C3 and C4 species. We aim to provide a revision and a preliminary new classification of C3 Cyperus with clearly characterised monophyletic groups.},
  author       = {Larridon, Isabel},
  isbn         = {9789490695781},
  keyword      = {C3 Cyperus,revision,taxonomy,nomenclature,Cyperaceae,molecular phylogeny},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {402},
  publisher    = {Ghent University. Faculty of Sciences},
  school       = {Ghent University},
  title        = {Exploring giant genera and their satellites: tales from the C3 Cyperus universe},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
Larridon, Isabel. 2011. “Exploring Giant Genera and Their Satellites: Tales from the C3 Cyperus Universe”. Ghent, Belgium: Ghent University. Faculty of Sciences.
APA
Larridon, I. (2011). Exploring giant genera and their satellites: tales from the C3 Cyperus universe. Ghent University. Faculty of Sciences, Ghent, Belgium.
Vancouver
1.
Larridon I. Exploring giant genera and their satellites: tales from the C3 Cyperus universe. [Ghent, Belgium]: Ghent University. Faculty of Sciences; 2011.
MLA
Larridon, Isabel. “Exploring Giant Genera and Their Satellites: Tales from the C3 Cyperus Universe.” 2011 : n. pag. Print.