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I like it because I said that I like it: evaluative conditioning effects can be based on stimulus-response learning

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Abstract
Evaluative conditioning (EC) effects are often assumed to be based on a learned mental link between the CS (conditioned stimulus) and the US (unconditioned stimulus). We demonstrate that this link is not the only one that can underlie EC effects, but that if evaluative responses are actually given during the learning phase also a direct link between the CS and an evaluative response-a CS-ER link-can be learned and lead to EC effects. In Experiment 1, CSs were paired with USs and participants were asked to evaluate the pairs during the conditioning phase. Resulting EC effects were unaffected by a later revaluation of the USs, suggesting that these EC effects can be attributed to CS-ER learning rather than to CS-US learning. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1 with the difference that no evaluative responses were given during the learning phase. EC effects in this study were influenced by US revaluation, suggesting that these EC effects are mainly based on CS-US learning. In Experiment 3, it was shown that EC effects can be found even if the USs are entirely removed from the procedure and the CSs are only paired with enforced evaluative responses. Together the experiments show that the valence of a stimulus can change because of a contingency with an evaluative response.
Keywords
AWARENESS, VALENCE, ATTITUDES, IMPLICIT, US-REVALUATION, UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS, ASSOCIATION, PREFERENCES, ACTIVATION, COGNITION, evaluative conditioning, S-R learning, S-S learning, US revaluation, evaluative response

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Gast, Anne, and Klaus Rothermund. 2011. “I Like It Because I Said That I Like It: Evaluative Conditioning Effects Can Be Based on Stimulus-response Learning.” Journal of Experimental Psychology-animal Behavior Processes 37 (4): 466–476.
APA
Gast, A., & Rothermund, K. (2011). I like it because I said that I like it: evaluative conditioning effects can be based on stimulus-response learning. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-ANIMAL BEHAVIOR PROCESSES, 37(4), 466–476.
Vancouver
1.
Gast A, Rothermund K. I like it because I said that I like it: evaluative conditioning effects can be based on stimulus-response learning. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-ANIMAL BEHAVIOR PROCESSES. 2011;37(4):466–76.
MLA
Gast, Anne, and Klaus Rothermund. “I Like It Because I Said That I Like It: Evaluative Conditioning Effects Can Be Based on Stimulus-response Learning.” JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-ANIMAL BEHAVIOR PROCESSES 37.4 (2011): 466–476. Print.
@article{1968219,
  abstract     = {Evaluative conditioning (EC) effects are often assumed to be based on a learned mental link between the CS (conditioned stimulus) and the US (unconditioned stimulus). We demonstrate that this link is not the only one that can underlie EC effects, but that if evaluative responses are actually given during the learning phase also a direct link between the CS and an evaluative response-a CS-ER link-can be learned and lead to EC effects. In Experiment 1, CSs were paired with USs and participants were asked to evaluate the pairs during the conditioning phase. Resulting EC effects were unaffected by a later revaluation of the USs, suggesting that these EC effects can be attributed to CS-ER learning rather than to CS-US learning. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1 with the difference that no evaluative responses were given during the learning phase. EC effects in this study were influenced by US revaluation, suggesting that these EC effects are mainly based on CS-US learning. In Experiment 3, it was shown that EC effects can be found even if the USs are entirely removed from the procedure and the CSs are only paired with enforced evaluative responses. Together the experiments show that the valence of a stimulus can change because of a contingency with an evaluative response.},
  author       = {Gast, Anne and Rothermund, Klaus},
  issn         = {0097-7403},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-ANIMAL BEHAVIOR PROCESSES},
  keyword      = {AWARENESS,VALENCE,ATTITUDES,IMPLICIT,US-REVALUATION,UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS,ASSOCIATION,PREFERENCES,ACTIVATION,COGNITION,evaluative conditioning,S-R learning,S-S learning,US revaluation,evaluative response},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {466--476},
  title        = {I like it because I said that I like it: evaluative conditioning effects can be based on stimulus-response learning},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0023077},
  volume       = {37},
  year         = {2011},
}

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