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X-chromosome-located microRNAs in immunity: might they explain male/female differences?: the X chromosome-genomic context may affect X-located miRNAs and downstream signaling, thereby contributing to the enhanced immune response of females

Iris Pinheiro (UGent) , Lien Dejager (UGent) and Claude Libert (UGent)
(2011) BIOESSAYS. 33(11). p.791-802
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Abstract
In this paper, we hypothesize that X chromosome-associated mechanisms, which affect X-linked genes and are behind the immunological advantage of females, may also affect X-linked microRNAs. The human X chromosome contains 10% of all microRNAs detected so far in the human genome. Although the role of most of them has not yet been described, several X chromosome-located microRNAs have important functions in immunity and cancer. We therefore provide a detailed map of all described microRNAs located on human and mouse X chromosomes, and highlight the ones involved in immune functions and oncogenesis. The unique mode of inheritance of the X chromosome is ultimately the cause of the immune disadvantage of males and the enhanced survival of females following immunological challenges. How these aspects influence X-linked microRNAs will be a challenge for researchers in the coming years, not only from an evolutionary point of view, but also from the perspective of disease etiology.
Keywords
cancer, genomic context, immunity, miRNAs, X chromosome, INDUCED LEUCINE-ZIPPER, CELLULAR MOSAICISM, TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR, RAPID EVOLUTION, SEX-DIFFERENCES, LINKED GENES, HUMAN CANCER, RNASE-III, GENDER, INACTIVATION

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MLA
Pinheiro, Iris, et al. “X-Chromosome-Located MicroRNAs in Immunity: Might They Explain Male/Female Differences?: The X Chromosome-Genomic Context May Affect X-Located MiRNAs and Downstream Signaling, Thereby Contributing to the Enhanced Immune Response of Females.” BIOESSAYS, vol. 33, no. 11, 2011, pp. 791–802, doi:10.1002/bies.201100047.
APA
Pinheiro, I., Dejager, L., & Libert, C. (2011). X-chromosome-located microRNAs in immunity: might they explain male/female differences?: the X chromosome-genomic context may affect X-located miRNAs and downstream signaling, thereby contributing to the enhanced immune response of females. BIOESSAYS, 33(11), 791–802. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.201100047
Chicago author-date
Pinheiro, Iris, Lien Dejager, and Claude Libert. 2011. “X-Chromosome-Located MicroRNAs in Immunity: Might They Explain Male/Female Differences?: The X Chromosome-Genomic Context May Affect X-Located MiRNAs and Downstream Signaling, Thereby Contributing to the Enhanced Immune Response of Females.” BIOESSAYS 33 (11): 791–802. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.201100047.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Pinheiro, Iris, Lien Dejager, and Claude Libert. 2011. “X-Chromosome-Located MicroRNAs in Immunity: Might They Explain Male/Female Differences?: The X Chromosome-Genomic Context May Affect X-Located MiRNAs and Downstream Signaling, Thereby Contributing to the Enhanced Immune Response of Females.” BIOESSAYS 33 (11): 791–802. doi:10.1002/bies.201100047.
Vancouver
1.
Pinheiro I, Dejager L, Libert C. X-chromosome-located microRNAs in immunity: might they explain male/female differences?: the X chromosome-genomic context may affect X-located miRNAs and downstream signaling, thereby contributing to the enhanced immune response of females. BIOESSAYS. 2011;33(11):791–802.
IEEE
[1]
I. Pinheiro, L. Dejager, and C. Libert, “X-chromosome-located microRNAs in immunity: might they explain male/female differences?: the X chromosome-genomic context may affect X-located miRNAs and downstream signaling, thereby contributing to the enhanced immune response of females,” BIOESSAYS, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 791–802, 2011.
@article{1963722,
  abstract     = {{In this paper, we hypothesize that X chromosome-associated mechanisms, which affect X-linked genes and are behind the immunological advantage of females, may also affect X-linked microRNAs. The human X chromosome contains 10% of all microRNAs detected so far in the human genome. Although the role of most of them has not yet been described, several X chromosome-located microRNAs have important functions in immunity and cancer. We therefore provide a detailed map of all described microRNAs located on human and mouse X chromosomes, and highlight the ones involved in immune functions and oncogenesis. The unique mode of inheritance of the X chromosome is ultimately the cause of the immune disadvantage of males and the enhanced survival of females following immunological challenges. How these aspects influence X-linked microRNAs will be a challenge for researchers in the coming years, not only from an evolutionary point of view, but also from the perspective of disease etiology.}},
  author       = {{Pinheiro, Iris and Dejager, Lien and Libert, Claude}},
  issn         = {{0265-9247}},
  journal      = {{BIOESSAYS}},
  keywords     = {{cancer,genomic context,immunity,miRNAs,X chromosome,INDUCED LEUCINE-ZIPPER,CELLULAR MOSAICISM,TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR,RAPID EVOLUTION,SEX-DIFFERENCES,LINKED GENES,HUMAN CANCER,RNASE-III,GENDER,INACTIVATION}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{11}},
  pages        = {{791--802}},
  title        = {{X-chromosome-located microRNAs in immunity: might they explain male/female differences?: the X chromosome-genomic context may affect X-located miRNAs and downstream signaling, thereby contributing to the enhanced immune response of females}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201100047}},
  volume       = {{33}},
  year         = {{2011}},
}

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