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Stress induced Salmonella Typhimurium recrudescence in pigs coincides with cortisol induced increased intracellular proliferation in macrophages

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Abstract
Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs often result in the development of carriers that intermittently excrete Salmonella in very low numbers. During periods of stress, for example transport to the slaughterhouse, recrudescence of Salmonella may occur, but the mechanism of this stress related recrudescence is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the role of the stress hormone cortisol in Salmonella recrudescence by pigs. We showed that a 24 h feed withdrawal increases the intestinal Salmonella Typhimurium load in pigs, which is correlated with increased serum cortisol levels. A second in vivo trial demonstrated that stress related recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs can be induced by intramuscular injection of dexamethasone. Furthermore, we found that cortisol, but not epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, promotes intracellular proliferation of Salmonella Typhimurium in primary porcine alveolar macrophages, but not in intestinal epithelial cells and a transformed cell line of porcine alveolar macrophages. A microarray based transcriptomic analysis revealed that cortisol did not directly affect the growth or the gene expression or Salmonella Typhimurium in a rich medium, which implies that the enhanced intracellular proliferation of the bacterium is probably caused by an indirect effect through the cell. These results highlight the role of cortisol in the recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium by pigs and they provide new evidence for the role of microbial endocrinology in host-pathogen interactions.
Keywords
FEED WITHDRAWAL TIMES, ENTERICA SEROVAR TYPHIMURIUM, MICROBIAL ENDOCRINOLOGY, ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES, INFECTIOUS-DISEASE, IN-VITRO, NOREPINEPHRINE, COLONIZATION, EXPRESSION, SUSCEPTIBILITY

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Chicago
Verbrugghe, Elin, Filip Boyen, Alexander Van Parys, Kim Van Deun, Siska Croubels, Arthur Thompson, Neil Shearer, Bregje Leyman, Freddy Haesebrouck, and Frank Pasmans. 2011. “Stress Induced Salmonella Typhimurium Recrudescence in Pigs Coincides with Cortisol Induced Increased Intracellular Proliferation in Macrophages.” Veterinary Research 42.
APA
Verbrugghe, E., Boyen, F., Van Parys, A., Van Deun, K., Croubels, S., Thompson, A., Shearer, N., et al. (2011). Stress induced Salmonella Typhimurium recrudescence in pigs coincides with cortisol induced increased intracellular proliferation in macrophages. VETERINARY RESEARCH, 42.
Vancouver
1.
Verbrugghe E, Boyen F, Van Parys A, Van Deun K, Croubels S, Thompson A, et al. Stress induced Salmonella Typhimurium recrudescence in pigs coincides with cortisol induced increased intracellular proliferation in macrophages. VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2011;42.
MLA
Verbrugghe, Elin, Filip Boyen, Alexander Van Parys, et al. “Stress Induced Salmonella Typhimurium Recrudescence in Pigs Coincides with Cortisol Induced Increased Intracellular Proliferation in Macrophages.” VETERINARY RESEARCH 42 (2011): n. pag. Print.
@article{1963036,
  abstract     = {Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs often result in the development of carriers that intermittently excrete Salmonella in very low numbers. During periods of stress, for example transport to the slaughterhouse, recrudescence of Salmonella may occur, but the mechanism of this stress related recrudescence is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the role of the stress hormone cortisol in Salmonella recrudescence by pigs. We showed that a 24 h feed withdrawal increases the intestinal Salmonella Typhimurium load in pigs, which is correlated with increased serum cortisol levels. A second in vivo trial demonstrated that stress related recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs can be induced by intramuscular injection of dexamethasone. Furthermore, we found that cortisol, but not epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, promotes intracellular proliferation of Salmonella Typhimurium in primary porcine alveolar macrophages, but not in intestinal epithelial cells and a transformed cell line of porcine alveolar macrophages. A microarray based transcriptomic analysis revealed that cortisol did not directly affect the growth or the gene expression or Salmonella Typhimurium in a rich medium, which implies that the enhanced intracellular proliferation of the bacterium is probably caused by an indirect effect through the cell. These results highlight the role of cortisol in the recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium by pigs and they provide new evidence for the role of microbial endocrinology in host-pathogen interactions.},
  articleno    = {118},
  author       = {Verbrugghe, Elin and Boyen, Filip and Van Parys, Alexander and Van Deun, Kim and Croubels, Siska and Thompson, Arthur  and Shearer, Neil and Leyman, Bregje and Haesebrouck, Freddy and Pasmans, Frank},
  issn         = {0928-4249},
  journal      = {VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {FEED WITHDRAWAL TIMES,ENTERICA SEROVAR TYPHIMURIUM,MICROBIAL ENDOCRINOLOGY,ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES,INFECTIOUS-DISEASE,IN-VITRO,NOREPINEPHRINE,COLONIZATION,EXPRESSION,SUSCEPTIBILITY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {10},
  title        = {Stress induced Salmonella Typhimurium recrudescence in pigs coincides with cortisol induced increased intracellular proliferation in macrophages},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-42-118},
  volume       = {42},
  year         = {2011},
}

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