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Vowel split in Hungan (Bantu H42, Kwilu, DRC): a contact-induced language-internal change

Koen Bostoen (UGent) and Joseph Koni Muluwa (UGent)
Author
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Abstract
This paper examines the diachronic origin of a vowel split in the Bantu language Hungan. It is shown that the inherited Proto-Bantu seven-vowel (7V) system was first reduced to a classical five-vowel (5V) system before the Kipuka variety of Hungan developed a new kind of 7V system. Such a 7V>5V>7V cycle has never before been described in Bantu. The new 7V system is thus the end product of a vowel merger and a vowel split which succeeded each other, but it could be mistaken for the outcome of a chain shift. The vowel split itself started out as an internally-motivated allophonic variation between tense and lax mid vowels that subsequently became phonologized through an externally-motivated loss of the conditioning environment. It can therefore be considered as a contact-induced language-internal change.
Keywords
Bantu, vowel split, contact-induced change, chain shift, phonologization, historical linguistics, sound change, language contact, vowel merger, Hungan

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Chicago
Bostoen, Koen, and Joseph Koni Muluwa. 2011. “Vowel Split in Hungan (Bantu H42, Kwilu, DRC): a Contact-induced Language-internal Change.” Journal of Historical Linguistics (amsterdam) 1 (2): 247–268.
APA
Bostoen, K., & Koni Muluwa, J. (2011). Vowel split in Hungan (Bantu H42, Kwilu, DRC): a contact-induced language-internal change. JOURNAL OF HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS (AMSTERDAM), 1(2), 247–268.
Vancouver
1.
Bostoen K, Koni Muluwa J. Vowel split in Hungan (Bantu H42, Kwilu, DRC): a contact-induced language-internal change. JOURNAL OF HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS (AMSTERDAM). 2011;1(2):247–68.
MLA
Bostoen, Koen, and Joseph Koni Muluwa. “Vowel Split in Hungan (Bantu H42, Kwilu, DRC): a Contact-induced Language-internal Change.” JOURNAL OF HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS (AMSTERDAM) 1.2 (2011): 247–268. Print.
@article{1962847,
  abstract     = {This paper examines the diachronic origin of a vowel split in the Bantu language Hungan. It is shown that the inherited Proto-Bantu seven-vowel (7V) system was first reduced to a classical five-vowel (5V) system before the Kipuka variety of Hungan developed a new kind of 7V system. Such a 7V{\textrangle}5V{\textrangle}7V cycle has never before been described in Bantu. The new 7V system is thus the end product of a vowel merger and a vowel split which succeeded each other, but it could be mistaken for the outcome of a chain shift. The vowel split itself started out as an internally-motivated allophonic variation between tense and lax mid vowels that subsequently became phonologized through an externally-motivated loss of the conditioning environment. It can therefore be considered as a contact-induced language-internal change.},
  author       = {Bostoen, Koen and Koni Muluwa, Joseph},
  issn         = {2210-2116},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS (AMSTERDAM)},
  keyword      = {Bantu,vowel split,contact-induced change,chain shift,phonologization,historical linguistics,sound change,language contact,vowel merger,Hungan},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {247--268},
  title        = {Vowel split in Hungan (Bantu H42, Kwilu, DRC): a contact-induced language-internal change},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/jhl.1.2.04bos},
  volume       = {1},
  year         = {2011},
}

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