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How many steps/day are enough? : for adults

Catrine Tudor-Locke, Cora L Craig, Wendy J Brown, Stacy A Clemes, Katrien De Cocker UGent, Billie Giles-Corti, Yoshiro Hatano, Shigeru Inoue, Sandra M Matsudo, Nanette Mutrie, et al. (2011) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. 8.
abstract
Physical activity guidelines from around the world are typically expressed in terms of frequency, duration, and intensity parameters. Objective monitoring using pedometers and accelerometers offers a new opportunity to measure and communicate physical activity in terms of steps/day. Various step-based versions or translations of physical activity guidelines are emerging, reflecting public interest in such guidance. However, there appears to be a wide discrepancy in the exact values that are being communicated. It makes sense that step-based recommendations should be harmonious with existing evidence-based public health guidelines that recognize that "some physical activity is better than none" while maintaining a focus on time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Thus, the purpose of this review was to update our existing knowledge of "How many steps/day are enough?", and to inform step-based recommendations consistent with current physical activity guidelines. Normative data indicate that healthy adults typically take between 4,000 and 18,000 steps/day, and that 10,000 steps/day is reasonable for this population, although there are notable "low active populations." Interventions demonstrate incremental increases on the order of 2,000-2,500 steps/day. The results of seven different controlled studies demonstrate that there is a strong relationship between cadence and intensity. Further, despite some inter-individual variation, 100 steps/minute represents a reasonable floor value indicative of moderate intensity walking. Multiplying this cadence by 30 minutes (i.e., typical of a daily recommendation) produces a minimum of 3,000 steps that is best used as a heuristic (i.e., guiding) value, but these steps must be taken over and above habitual activity levels to be a true expression of free-living steps/day that also includes recommendations for minimal amounts of time in MVPA. Computed steps/day translations of time in MVPA that also include estimates of habitual activity levels equate to 7,100 to 11,000 steps/day. A direct estimate of minimal amounts of MVPA accumulated in the course of objectively monitored free-living behaviour is 7,000-8,000 steps/day. A scale that spans a wide range of incremental increases in steps/day and is congruent with public health recognition that "some physical activity is better than none," yet still incorporates step-based translations of recommended amounts of time in MVPA may be useful in research and practice. The full range of users (researchers to practitioners to the general public) of objective monitoring instruments that provide step-based outputs require good reference data and evidence-based recommendations to be able to design effective health messages congruent with public health physical activity guidelines, guide behaviour change, and ultimately measure, track, and interpret steps/day.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE, ENERGY-EXPENDITURE, US ADULTS, RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL, OF-SPORTS-MEDICINE, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY RECOMMENDATIONS, POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN, OLDER-ADULTS, AMBULATORY ACTIVITY, PUBLIC-HEALTH
journal title
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act.
volume
8
article number
79
pages
17 pages
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000296698200001
JCR category
NUTRITION & DIETETICS
JCR impact factor
3.828 (2011)
JCR rank
12/71 (2011)
JCR quartile
1 (2011)
ISSN
1479-5868
DOI
10.1186/1479-5868-8-79
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have retained and own the full copyright for this publication
id
1955912
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-1955912
date created
2011-11-29 14:49:44
date last changed
2017-04-10 12:49:21
@article{1955912,
  abstract     = {Physical activity guidelines from around the world are typically expressed in terms of frequency, duration, and intensity parameters. Objective monitoring using pedometers and accelerometers offers a new opportunity to measure and communicate physical activity in terms of steps/day. Various step-based versions or translations of physical activity guidelines are emerging, reflecting public interest in such guidance. However, there appears to be a wide discrepancy in the exact values that are being communicated. It makes sense that step-based recommendations should be harmonious with existing evidence-based public health guidelines that recognize that {\textacutedbl}some physical activity is better than none{\textacutedbl} while maintaining a focus on time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Thus, the purpose of this review was to update our existing knowledge of {\textacutedbl}How many steps/day are enough?{\textacutedbl}, and to inform step-based recommendations consistent with current physical activity guidelines. Normative data indicate that healthy adults typically take between 4,000 and 18,000 steps/day, and that 10,000 steps/day is reasonable for this population, although there are notable {\textacutedbl}low active populations.{\textacutedbl} Interventions demonstrate incremental increases on the order of 2,000-2,500 steps/day. The results of seven different controlled studies demonstrate that there is a strong relationship between cadence and intensity. Further, despite some inter-individual variation, 100 steps/minute represents a reasonable floor value indicative of moderate intensity walking. Multiplying this cadence by 30 minutes (i.e., typical of a daily recommendation) produces a minimum of 3,000 steps that is best used as a heuristic (i.e., guiding) value, but these steps must be taken over and above habitual activity levels to be a true expression of free-living steps/day that also includes recommendations for minimal amounts of time in MVPA. Computed steps/day translations of time in MVPA that also include estimates of habitual activity levels equate to 7,100 to 11,000 steps/day. A direct estimate of minimal amounts of MVPA accumulated in the course of objectively monitored free-living behaviour is 7,000-8,000 steps/day. A scale that spans a wide range of incremental increases in steps/day and is congruent with public health recognition that {\textacutedbl}some physical activity is better than none,{\textacutedbl} yet still incorporates step-based translations of recommended amounts of time in MVPA may be useful in research and practice. The full range of users (researchers to practitioners to the general public) of objective monitoring instruments that provide step-based outputs require good reference data and evidence-based recommendations to be able to design effective health messages congruent with public health physical activity guidelines, guide behaviour change, and ultimately measure, track, and interpret steps/day.},
  articleno    = {79},
  author       = {Tudor-Locke, Catrine and Craig, Cora L and Brown, Wendy J and Clemes, Stacy A and De Cocker, Katrien and Giles-Corti, Billie and Hatano, Yoshiro and Inoue, Shigeru and Matsudo, Sandra M and Mutrie, Nanette and Oppert, Jean-Michel and Rowe, David A and Schmidt, Michael D and Schofield, Grant M and Spence, John C and Teixeira, Pedro J and Tully, Mark A and Blair, Steven N},
  issn         = {1479-5868},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY},
  keyword      = {CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE,ENERGY-EXPENDITURE,US ADULTS,RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL,OF-SPORTS-MEDICINE,PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY RECOMMENDATIONS,POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN,OLDER-ADULTS,AMBULATORY ACTIVITY,PUBLIC-HEALTH},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {17},
  title        = {How many steps/day are enough? : for adults},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-79},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
Tudor-Locke, Catrine, Cora L Craig, Wendy J Brown, Stacy A Clemes, Katrien De Cocker, Billie Giles-Corti, Yoshiro Hatano, et al. 2011. “How Many Steps/day Are Enough? : for Adults.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 8.
APA
Tudor-Locke, C., Craig, C. L., Brown, W. J., Clemes, S. A., De Cocker, K., Giles-Corti, B., Hatano, Y., et al. (2011). How many steps/day are enough? : for adults. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, 8.
Vancouver
1.
Tudor-Locke C, Craig CL, Brown WJ, Clemes SA, De Cocker K, Giles-Corti B, et al. How many steps/day are enough? : for adults. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. 2011;8.
MLA
Tudor-Locke, Catrine, Cora L Craig, Wendy J Brown, et al. “How Many Steps/day Are Enough? : for Adults.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 8 (2011): n. pag. Print.