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Why do GPs hesitate to refer diabetes patients to a self-management education program: a qualitative study

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Abstract
Background: Self-management support is seen as a cornerstone of good diabetes care and many countries are currently engaged in initiatives to integrate self-management support in primary care. Concerning the organisation of these programs, evidence is growing that engagement of health care professionals, in particular of GPs, is critical for successful application. This paper reports on a study exploring why a substantial number of GPs was (initially) reluctant to refer patients to a self-management education program in Belgium. Methods: Qualitative analysis of semi-structured face-to-face interviews with a purposive sample of 20 GPs who were not regular users of the service. The Greenhalgh diffusion of innovation framework was used as background and organising framework. Results: Several barriers, linked to different components of the Greenhalgh model, emerged from the interview data. One of the most striking ones was the limited readiness for innovation among GPs. Feelings of fear of further fragmentation of diabetes care and frustration and insecurity regarding their own role in diabetes care prevented them from engaging in the innovation process. GPs needed time to be reassured that the program respects their role and has an added value to usual care. Once GPs considered referring patients, it was not clear enough which of their patients would benefit from the program. Some GPs expressed the need for training in motivational skills, so that they could better motivate their patients to participate. A practical but often mentioned barrier was the distance to the centre where the program was delivered. Further, uncertainty about continuity interfered with the uptake of the offer. Conclusions: The study results contribute to a better understanding of the reasons why GPs hesitate to refer patients to a self-management education program. First of all, the role of GPs and other health care providers in diabetes care needs to be clarified before introducing new functions. Feelings of security and a basic trust of providers in the health system are a prerequisite for participation in care innovation. Moreover, some important lessons regarding the implementation of an education program in primary care have been learned from the study.
Keywords
HEALTH-CARE, CHRONIC DISEASE, IMPLEMENTATION, ORGANIZATIONS, INNOVATIONS, LESSONS

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MLA
Sunaert, Patricia, Marie Vandekerckhove, Hilde Bastiaens, et al. “Why Do GPs Hesitate to Refer Diabetes Patients to a Self-management Education Program: a Qualitative Study.” BMC FAMILY PRACTICE 12 (2011): n. pag. Print.
APA
Sunaert, P., Vandekerckhove, M., Bastiaens, H., Feyen, L., Vanden Bussche, P., De Maeseneer, J., De Sutter, A., et al. (2011). Why do GPs hesitate to refer diabetes patients to a self-management education program: a qualitative study. BMC FAMILY PRACTICE, 12.
Chicago author-date
Sunaert, Patricia, Marie Vandekerckhove, Hilde Bastiaens, Luc Feyen, Pierre Vanden Bussche, Jan De Maeseneer, An De Sutter, and Sara Willems. 2011. “Why Do GPs Hesitate to Refer Diabetes Patients to a Self-management Education Program: a Qualitative Study.” Bmc Family Practice 12.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Sunaert, Patricia, Marie Vandekerckhove, Hilde Bastiaens, Luc Feyen, Pierre Vanden Bussche, Jan De Maeseneer, An De Sutter, and Sara Willems. 2011. “Why Do GPs Hesitate to Refer Diabetes Patients to a Self-management Education Program: a Qualitative Study.” Bmc Family Practice 12.
Vancouver
1.
Sunaert P, Vandekerckhove M, Bastiaens H, Feyen L, Vanden Bussche P, De Maeseneer J, et al. Why do GPs hesitate to refer diabetes patients to a self-management education program: a qualitative study. BMC FAMILY PRACTICE. 2011;12.
IEEE
[1]
P. Sunaert et al., “Why do GPs hesitate to refer diabetes patients to a self-management education program: a qualitative study,” BMC FAMILY PRACTICE, vol. 12, 2011.
@article{1945910,
  abstract     = {Background: Self-management support is seen as a cornerstone of good diabetes care and many countries are currently engaged in initiatives to integrate self-management support in primary care. Concerning the organisation of these programs, evidence is growing that engagement of health care professionals, in particular of GPs, is critical for successful application. This paper reports on a study exploring why a substantial number of GPs was (initially) reluctant to refer patients to a self-management education program in Belgium. 
Methods: Qualitative analysis of semi-structured face-to-face interviews with a purposive sample of 20 GPs who were not regular users of the service. The Greenhalgh diffusion of innovation framework was used as background and organising framework. 
Results: Several barriers, linked to different components of the Greenhalgh model, emerged from the interview data. One of the most striking ones was the limited readiness for innovation among GPs. Feelings of fear of further fragmentation of diabetes care and frustration and insecurity regarding their own role in diabetes care prevented them from engaging in the innovation process. GPs needed time to be reassured that the program respects their role and has an added value to usual care. Once GPs considered referring patients, it was not clear enough which of their patients would benefit from the program. Some GPs expressed the need for training in motivational skills, so that they could better motivate their patients to participate. A practical but often mentioned barrier was the distance to the centre where the program was delivered. Further, uncertainty about continuity interfered with the uptake of the offer. 
Conclusions: The study results contribute to a better understanding of the reasons why GPs hesitate to refer patients to a self-management education program. First of all, the role of GPs and other health care providers in diabetes care needs to be clarified before introducing new functions. Feelings of security and a basic trust of providers in the health system are a prerequisite for participation in care innovation. Moreover, some important lessons regarding the implementation of an education program in primary care have been learned from the study.},
  articleno    = {12},
  author       = {Sunaert, Patricia and Vandekerckhove, Marie and Bastiaens, Hilde and Feyen, Luc and Vanden Bussche, Pierre and De Maeseneer, Jan and De Sutter, An and Willems, Sara},
  issn         = {1471-2296},
  journal      = {BMC FAMILY PRACTICE},
  keywords     = {HEALTH-CARE,CHRONIC DISEASE,IMPLEMENTATION,ORGANIZATIONS,INNOVATIONS,LESSONS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {11},
  title        = {Why do GPs hesitate to refer diabetes patients to a self-management education program: a qualitative study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2296-12-94},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2011},
}

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