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Vernal keratoconjunctivitis in school children in Rwanda and its association with socio-economic status: a population-based survey

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Abstract
Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is an allergic eye disease and an important cause of hospital referral among children in Africa and Asia. Hospital-based studies have suggested a role for parasites in its pathogenesis. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for VKC in Central Africa, we conducted a nested population-based case control study in Rwanda, involving randomly selected primary schools from different environments (rural/urban) and climate. A prevalence of VKC of 4.0% (95% confidence interval 3.3-4.7%) was found among 3,041 children studied (participation rate 94.7%). The intestinal parasitic burden was not related to VKC. Besides hot dry climate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, P = 0.05) and male gender (OR = 1.7, P = 0.005), multivariate analysis identified higher economic status as a risk for VKC (OR = 1.4, P = 0.005). The effect on VKC of higher economic status appears not to act through differences in parasitic intestinal load.
Keywords
BRONCHIAL-ASTHMA, IGE, NORTHERN NIGERIA, PREVALENCE, PARASITES, URBAN, ATOPY, CONJUNCTIVITIS, INFECTION, ALLERGIC DISEASES

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Chicago
De Smedt, Stefan, John Nkurikiye, Yannick Fonteyne, Arjan Hogewoning, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Dirk De Bacquer, Stephen Tuft, Clare Gilbert, Joris Delanghe, and Philippe Kestelyn. 2011. “Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis in School Children in Rwanda and Its Association with Socio-economic Status: a Population-based Survey.” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 85 (4): 711–717.
APA
De Smedt, Stefan, Nkurikiye, J., Fonteyne, Y., Hogewoning, A., Van Esbroeck, M., De Bacquer, D., Tuft, S., et al. (2011). Vernal keratoconjunctivitis in school children in Rwanda and its association with socio-economic status: a population-based survey. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE, 85(4), 711–717.
Vancouver
1.
De Smedt S, Nkurikiye J, Fonteyne Y, Hogewoning A, Van Esbroeck M, De Bacquer D, et al. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis in school children in Rwanda and its association with socio-economic status: a population-based survey. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE. 2011;85(4):711–7.
MLA
De Smedt, Stefan, John Nkurikiye, Yannick Fonteyne, et al. “Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis in School Children in Rwanda and Its Association with Socio-economic Status: a Population-based Survey.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE 85.4 (2011): 711–717. Print.
@article{1941719,
  abstract     = {Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is an allergic eye disease and an important cause of hospital referral among children in Africa and Asia. Hospital-based studies have suggested a role for parasites in its pathogenesis. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for VKC in Central Africa, we conducted a nested population-based case control study in Rwanda, involving randomly selected primary schools from different environments (rural/urban) and climate. A prevalence of VKC of 4.0\% (95\% confidence interval 3.3-4.7\%) was found among 3,041 children studied (participation rate 94.7\%). The intestinal parasitic burden was not related to VKC. Besides hot dry climate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, P = 0.05) and male gender (OR = 1.7, P = 0.005), multivariate analysis identified higher economic status as a risk for VKC (OR = 1.4, P = 0.005). The effect on VKC of higher economic status appears not to act through differences in parasitic intestinal load.},
  author       = {De Smedt, Stefan and Nkurikiye, John and Fonteyne, Yannick and Hogewoning, Arjan and Van Esbroeck, Marjan and De Bacquer, Dirk and Tuft, Stephen and Gilbert, Clare and Delanghe, Joris and Kestelyn, Philippe},
  issn         = {0002-9637},
  journal      = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE},
  keyword      = {BRONCHIAL-ASTHMA,IGE,NORTHERN NIGERIA,PREVALENCE,PARASITES,URBAN,ATOPY,CONJUNCTIVITIS,INFECTION,ALLERGIC DISEASES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {711--717},
  title        = {Vernal keratoconjunctivitis in school children in Rwanda and its association with socio-economic status: a population-based survey},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0291},
  volume       = {85},
  year         = {2011},
}

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