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The dynamics of Salmonella occurrence in commercial laying hen flocks throughout a laying period

(2011) AVIAN PATHOLOGY. 40(3). p.243-248
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Abstract
Contaminated eggs and egg products have been recognized for many years as an important source of Salmonella infections in humans in the European Union and in the United States. Longitudinal studies can help to increase our knowledge about the dynamics of the occurrence of Salmonella in the course of a laying period. The total of 41 laying hen flocks18 in Belgium, six in Denmark and 17 in Germanywere followed during an entire laying period. Samples taken from the empty cleaned and disinfected poultry houses were all negative for Salmonella. After hens arrived on the farms, five pooled faecal samples, one pooled dust sample and 40 cloacal swabs (Belgium and Germany) or 40 swabs from fresh droppings (Denmark) were taken four times from 18 flocks, three times from 21 flocks and two times from two flocks in the course of the laying period. Ten flocks (two Belgian and eight German flocks) tested up to three times positive for Salmonella. Forty-three out of 50 positive samples contained Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (29 isolates) or phage type 8 (14 isolates). The probability of subsequent Salmonella-positive findings increased significantly in Salmonella-positive flocks (P0.05, odds ratio = 6.4). However, the probability of finding Salmonella did not depend on the time of sampling in the laying period or the season.
Keywords
RISK-FACTORS, ENTERICA SEROTYPE ENTERITIDIS, INTERNAL ORGANS, UNITED-STATES, LAYER HOUSES, CONTAMINATION, EGGS, INFECTIONS

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Chicago
Schulz, J, Sebastiaan Van Hoorebeke, B Hald, J Hartung, Filip Van Immerseel, I Radtke, S Kabell, and Jeroen Dewulf. 2011. “The Dynamics of Salmonella Occurrence in Commercial Laying Hen Flocks Throughout a Laying Period.” Avian Pathology 40 (3): 243–248.
APA
Schulz, J., Van Hoorebeke, S., Hald, B., Hartung, J., Van Immerseel, F., Radtke, I., Kabell, S., et al. (2011). The dynamics of Salmonella occurrence in commercial laying hen flocks throughout a laying period. AVIAN PATHOLOGY, 40(3), 243–248.
Vancouver
1.
Schulz J, Van Hoorebeke S, Hald B, Hartung J, Van Immerseel F, Radtke I, et al. The dynamics of Salmonella occurrence in commercial laying hen flocks throughout a laying period. AVIAN PATHOLOGY. 2011;40(3):243–8.
MLA
Schulz, J, Sebastiaan Van Hoorebeke, B Hald, et al. “The Dynamics of Salmonella Occurrence in Commercial Laying Hen Flocks Throughout a Laying Period.” AVIAN PATHOLOGY 40.3 (2011): 243–248. Print.
@article{1934359,
  abstract     = {Contaminated eggs and egg products have been recognized for many years as an important source of Salmonella infections in humans in the European Union and in the United States. Longitudinal studies can help to increase our knowledge about the dynamics of the occurrence of Salmonella in the course of a laying period. The total of 41 laying hen flocks18 in Belgium, six in Denmark and 17 in Germanywere followed during an entire laying period. Samples taken from the empty cleaned and disinfected poultry houses were all negative for Salmonella. After hens arrived on the farms, five pooled faecal samples, one pooled dust sample and 40 cloacal swabs (Belgium and Germany) or 40 swabs from fresh droppings (Denmark) were taken four times from 18 flocks, three times from 21 flocks and two times from two flocks in the course of the laying period. Ten flocks (two Belgian and eight German flocks) tested up to three times positive for Salmonella. Forty-three out of 50 positive samples contained Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (29 isolates) or phage type 8 (14 isolates). The probability of subsequent Salmonella-positive findings increased significantly in Salmonella-positive flocks (P0.05, odds ratio = 6.4). However, the probability of finding Salmonella did not depend on the time of sampling in the laying period or the season.},
  articleno    = {PII 938746390},
  author       = {Schulz, J and Van Hoorebeke, Sebastiaan and Hald, B and Hartung, J and Van Immerseel, Filip and Radtke, I and Kabell, S and Dewulf, Jeroen},
  issn         = {0307-9457},
  journal      = {AVIAN PATHOLOGY},
  keyword      = {RISK-FACTORS,ENTERICA SEROTYPE ENTERITIDIS,INTERNAL ORGANS,UNITED-STATES,LAYER HOUSES,CONTAMINATION,EGGS,INFECTIONS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {PII 938746390:243--PII 938746390:248},
  title        = {The dynamics of Salmonella occurrence in commercial laying hen flocks throughout a laying period},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2010.544290},
  volume       = {40},
  year         = {2011},
}

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