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Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents : the HELENA study

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Abstract
Background: Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. Methods: The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach alpha) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Results: Cronbach alpha-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor criterion validity of the ASQ, especially in girls. Conclusions: In our European adolescent sample, the ASQ had an acceptable internal reliability and construct validity and the adolescents' gender and pubertal stage systematically contributed to the ASQ variance, but its test-retest reliability and criterion validity were rather poor. Overall, the utility of the ASQ for assessing perceived stress in adolescents across Europe is uncertain and some aspects require further examination.
Keywords
INDIVIDUALS, NUTRITION, DETERMINANTS, PSYCHOPATHOLOGY, CHILDREN, CORTISOL, GENDER-DIFFERENCES, METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES, SALIVARY ALPHA-AMYLASE, HEALTHY LIFE-STYLE

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MLA
De Vriendt, Tineke et al. “Reliability and Validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a Sample of European Adolescents : the HELENA Study.” BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 11 (2011): n. pag. Print.
APA
De Vriendt, T., Clays, E., Moreno, L. A., Bergman, P., Vicente-Rodriguez, G., Nagy, E., Dietrich, S., et al. (2011). Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents : the HELENA study. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, 11.
Chicago author-date
De Vriendt, Tineke, Els Clays, Luis A Moreno, Patrick Bergman, German Vicente-Rodriguez, Eniko Nagy, Sabine Dietrich, Yannis Manios, and Stefaan De Henauw. 2011. “Reliability and Validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a Sample of European Adolescents : the HELENA Study.” Bmc Public Health 11.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Vriendt, Tineke, Els Clays, Luis A Moreno, Patrick Bergman, German Vicente-Rodriguez, Eniko Nagy, Sabine Dietrich, Yannis Manios, and Stefaan De Henauw. 2011. “Reliability and Validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a Sample of European Adolescents : the HELENA Study.” Bmc Public Health 11.
Vancouver
1.
De Vriendt T, Clays E, Moreno LA, Bergman P, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Nagy E, et al. Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents : the HELENA study. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH. 2011;11.
IEEE
[1]
T. De Vriendt et al., “Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents : the HELENA study,” BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 11, 2011.
@article{1920032,
  abstract     = {Background: Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. Methods: The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach alpha) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Results: Cronbach alpha-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor criterion validity of the ASQ, especially in girls. Conclusions: In our European adolescent sample, the ASQ had an acceptable internal reliability and construct validity and the adolescents' gender and pubertal stage systematically contributed to the ASQ variance, but its test-retest reliability and criterion validity were rather poor. Overall, the utility of the ASQ for assessing perceived stress in adolescents across Europe is uncertain and some aspects require further examination.},
  articleno    = {717},
  author       = {De Vriendt, Tineke and Clays, Els and Moreno, Luis A and Bergman, Patrick and Vicente-Rodriguez, German and Nagy, Eniko and Dietrich, Sabine and Manios, Yannis and De Henauw, Stefaan},
  issn         = {1471-2458},
  journal      = {BMC PUBLIC HEALTH},
  keywords     = {INDIVIDUALS,NUTRITION,DETERMINANTS,PSYCHOPATHOLOGY,CHILDREN,CORTISOL,GENDER-DIFFERENCES,METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES,SALIVARY ALPHA-AMYLASE,HEALTHY LIFE-STYLE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {12},
  title        = {Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents : the HELENA study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-717},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {2011},
}

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