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The effect of starch gelatinisation degree on intestinal morphology, intestinal pH and bacteriology in pigeons

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Abstract
The effect of starch gelatinisation degree in extruded feed on intestinal morphology, intestinal pH and faecal bacteriology was investigated in pigeons. Extruded complete pigeon diets would offer the principle advantage of providing equilibrated nutrients and energy, but factors such as starch gelatinisation require investigation before these diets are offered as main dietary items to pigeons. Birds were fed two diets with equal ingredient composition and nutrient content, but with a different degree of starch gelatinisation resulting from altered extrusion processing (high gelatinisation degree (HG) with 73.6% gelatinisation vs. low gelatinisation degree (LG) with 53.1% gelatinisation). Feed intake and weight gain changes were measured weekly. Blood samples were collected at day 28 and analysed for non-esterified fatty acids, lactate dehydrogenase and glucose. The pH values for fresh excreta were measured; thereafter fresh excreta were collected and cultured for measurement of colony-forming units for bacterial classes. At the end, morphological measurements were examined and the pH values throughout the gastrointestinal tract were recorded. Liver, pancreas and abdominal fat were weighed. There was a tendency (p = 0.07) towards higher numbers of Escherichia coli in the excreta of the LG group compared with those in the HG group. No dietary treatment effects were noted on the number of Lactobacillus sp. in the excreta. In proximal parts of the intestine, LG revealed a significantly lower pH than HG. Villus height and crypt depth were not affected by dietary treatment, but the duodenum muscularis thickness, liver weight and pancreas weight were significantly lower in the LG than that in HG group. This trial demonstrated that the lower level of starch gelatinisation degree of extruded feed leads to acidification of the proximal gut and altered gut morphology in pigeons. Hence, extruded pigeon diets should preferably contain low-gelatinised starch instead of high-gelatinised starch. In addition, future research must focus on the effects of starch gelatinisation on the correlation between the intestinal pH, microflora content and intestinal morphology.
Keywords
IN-VITRO, DIGESTIBILITY, GROWING PIGS, GASTROINTESTINAL-TRACT, ENZYME SUPPLEMENTATION, NONSTARCH POLYSACCHARIDES, GROWTH-PERFORMANCE, BROILER-CHICKENS, CHICKENS FED WHEAT, BETA-GLUCANASE SUPPLEMENTATION, pigeons, bacteriology, intestinal morphology, gelatinisation, starch

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Chicago
Abd El-Khalek, Enass, Isabelle Kalmar, Frank Pasmans, Richard Ducatelle, Guy Werquin, Rosalie Devloo, and Geert Janssens. 2011. “The Effect of Starch Gelatinisation Degree on Intestinal Morphology, Intestinal pH and Bacteriology in Pigeons.” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 95 (1): 34–39.
APA
Abd El-Khalek, E., Kalmar, I., Pasmans, F., Ducatelle, R., Werquin, G., Devloo, R., & Janssens, G. (2011). The effect of starch gelatinisation degree on intestinal morphology, intestinal pH and bacteriology in pigeons. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION, 95(1), 34–39.
Vancouver
1.
Abd El-Khalek E, Kalmar I, Pasmans F, Ducatelle R, Werquin G, Devloo R, et al. The effect of starch gelatinisation degree on intestinal morphology, intestinal pH and bacteriology in pigeons. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. 2011;95(1):34–9.
MLA
Abd El-Khalek, Enass, Isabelle Kalmar, Frank Pasmans, et al. “The Effect of Starch Gelatinisation Degree on Intestinal Morphology, Intestinal pH and Bacteriology in Pigeons.” JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION 95.1 (2011): 34–39. Print.
@article{1919396,
  abstract     = {The effect of starch gelatinisation degree in extruded feed on intestinal morphology, intestinal pH and faecal bacteriology was investigated in pigeons. Extruded complete pigeon diets would offer the principle advantage of providing equilibrated nutrients and energy, but factors such as starch gelatinisation require investigation before these diets are offered as main dietary items to pigeons. Birds were fed two diets with equal ingredient composition and nutrient content, but with a different degree of starch gelatinisation resulting from altered extrusion processing (high gelatinisation degree (HG) with 73.6\% gelatinisation vs. low gelatinisation degree (LG) with 53.1\% gelatinisation). Feed intake and weight gain changes were measured weekly. Blood samples were collected at day 28 and analysed for non-esterified fatty acids, lactate dehydrogenase and glucose. The pH values for fresh excreta were measured; thereafter fresh excreta were collected and cultured for measurement of colony-forming units for bacterial classes. At the end, morphological measurements were examined and the pH values throughout the gastrointestinal tract were recorded. Liver, pancreas and abdominal fat were weighed. There was a tendency (p = 0.07) towards higher numbers of Escherichia coli in the excreta of the LG group compared with those in the HG group. No dietary treatment effects were noted on the number of Lactobacillus sp. in the excreta. In proximal parts of the intestine, LG revealed a significantly lower pH than HG. Villus height and crypt depth were not affected by dietary treatment, but the duodenum muscularis thickness, liver weight and pancreas weight were significantly lower in the LG than that in HG group. This trial demonstrated that the lower level of starch gelatinisation degree of extruded feed leads to acidification of the proximal gut and altered gut morphology in pigeons. Hence, extruded pigeon diets should preferably contain low-gelatinised starch instead of high-gelatinised starch. In addition, future research must focus on the effects of starch gelatinisation on the correlation between the intestinal pH, microflora content and intestinal morphology.},
  author       = {Abd El-Khalek, Enass and Kalmar, Isabelle and Pasmans, Frank and Ducatelle, Richard and Werquin, Guy and Devloo, Rosalie and Janssens, Geert},
  issn         = {0931-2439},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION},
  keyword      = {IN-VITRO,DIGESTIBILITY,GROWING PIGS,GASTROINTESTINAL-TRACT,ENZYME SUPPLEMENTATION,NONSTARCH POLYSACCHARIDES,GROWTH-PERFORMANCE,BROILER-CHICKENS,CHICKENS FED WHEAT,BETA-GLUCANASE SUPPLEMENTATION,pigeons,bacteriology,intestinal morphology,gelatinisation,starch},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {34--39},
  title        = {The effect of starch gelatinisation degree on intestinal morphology, intestinal pH and bacteriology in pigeons},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2009.00977.x},
  volume       = {95},
  year         = {2011},
}

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