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Changing the functionality of cocoa butter

Nathalie De Clercq (2011)
abstract
Cocoa butter is an essential ingredient in chocolate as it forms the continuous phase of chocolate. It’s therefore responsible for the gloss, texture and typical melting behaviour of ‘irresistible’ chocolate. The aim of this research was to change the functionality of cocoa butter by two different methods. In the first part, cocoa butter was modified by physical refining by using packed column steam refining with or without silica pretreatment. The physicochemical properties of the refined cocoa butters were determined and in the next step they were applied in a milk chocolate formulation. The produced milk chocolates were then evaluated for different quality characteristics. It was clear that the free fatty acids played a predominant role but the exact mechanism remained unclear. In the second part of this research, cocoa butter was changed more drastically as it was submitted to an enzymatic modification process, aiming to produce diacylglycerols. Diacylglycerols have distinct physicochemical properties compared to triacylglycerols due to the presence of a free hydroxyl group. An enzymatic glycerolysis reaction was optimized and a highly purified diacylglycerol fraction was obtained by short path distillation. The produced diacylglycerols were physicochemically characterized and blended with cocoa butter to screen their applicability in confectionary products. A multi-methodological approach was used to study the isothermal crystallization of cocoa butter at 20°C. In the last part of the research, the cocoa butter based diacylglycerols were applied in a dark chocolate formulation and the functional properties were derived by determining the melting and rheological behaviour and texture. As migration fat bloom remains one of the major quality issues in composed chocolate products, it was investigated whether cocoa butter based diacylglycerols could delay or prevent this phenomenon.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
promoter
UGent
organization
alternative title
Het wijzigen van de functionaliteit van cacaoboter
year
type
dissertation
publication status
published
subject
pages
XIV, 220 pages
publisher
Ghent University. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering
place of publication
Ghent, Belgium
defense location
Gent : Faculteit Bio-ingenieurswetenschappen (A0.030)
defense date
2011-09-28 17:00
ISBN
9789059894709
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
D1
copyright statement
I have retained and own the full copyright for this publication
id
1909786
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-1909786
date created
2011-09-28 09:19:33
date last changed
2017-01-16 10:38:30
@phdthesis{1909786,
  abstract     = {Cocoa butter is an essential ingredient in chocolate as it forms the continuous phase of chocolate. It{\textquoteright}s therefore responsible for the gloss, texture and typical melting behaviour of {\textquoteleft}irresistible{\textquoteright} chocolate. The aim of this research was to change the functionality of cocoa butter by two different methods. In the first part, cocoa butter was modified by physical refining by using packed column steam refining with or without silica pretreatment. The physicochemical properties of the refined cocoa butters were determined and in the next step they were applied in a milk chocolate formulation. The produced milk chocolates were then evaluated for different quality characteristics. It was clear that the free fatty acids played a predominant role but the exact mechanism remained unclear. 
In the second part of this research, cocoa butter was changed more drastically as it was submitted to an enzymatic modification process, aiming to produce diacylglycerols. Diacylglycerols have distinct physicochemical properties compared to triacylglycerols due to the presence of a free hydroxyl group. An enzymatic glycerolysis reaction was optimized and a highly purified diacylglycerol fraction was obtained by short path distillation. The produced diacylglycerols were physicochemically characterized and blended with cocoa butter to screen their applicability in confectionary products. A multi-methodological approach was used to study the isothermal crystallization of cocoa butter at 20{\textdegree}C. In the last part of the research, the cocoa butter based diacylglycerols were applied in a dark chocolate formulation and the functional properties were derived by determining the melting and rheological behaviour and texture. As migration fat bloom remains one of the major quality issues in composed chocolate products, it was investigated whether cocoa butter based diacylglycerols could delay or prevent this phenomenon.},
  author       = {De Clercq, Nathalie},
  isbn         = {9789059894709},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {XIV, 220},
  publisher    = {Ghent University. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering},
  school       = {Ghent University},
  title        = {Changing the functionality of cocoa butter},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
De Clercq, Nathalie. 2011. “Changing the Functionality of Cocoa Butter”. Ghent, Belgium: Ghent University. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering.
APA
De Clercq, Nathalie. (2011). Changing the functionality of cocoa butter. Ghent University. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent, Belgium.
Vancouver
1.
De Clercq N. Changing the functionality of cocoa butter. [Ghent, Belgium]: Ghent University. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering; 2011.
MLA
De Clercq, Nathalie. “Changing the Functionality of Cocoa Butter.” 2011 : n. pag. Print.