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Asymmetric leaves2 and elongator, a histone acetyltransferase complex, mediate the establishment of polarity in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana

(2011) PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY. 52(8). p.1259-1273
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Abstract
Leaf primordia are generated around the shoot apical meristem. Mutation of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana results in defects in repression of the meristematic and indeterminate state, establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity and left-right symmetry in leaves. AS2 represses transcription of meristem-specific class 1 KNOX homeobox genes and of the abaxial-determinant genes ETTIN/ARF3, KANADI2 and YABBY5. To clarify the role of AS2 in the establishment of leaf polarity, we isolated mutations that enhanced the polarity defects associated with as2. We describe here the enhancer-of-asymmetric-leaves-two1 (east1) mutation, which caused the formation of filamentous leaves with abaxialized epidermis on the as2-1 background. Levels of transcripts of class 1 KNOX and abaxial-determinant genes were markedly higher in as2-1 east1-1 mutant plants than in the wild-type and corresponding single-mutant plants. EAST1 encodes the histone acetyltransferase ELONGATA3 (ELO3), a component of the Elongator complex. Genetic analysis, using mutations in genes involved in the biogenesis of a trans-acting small interfering RNA (ta-siRNA), revealed that ELO3 mediated establishment of leaf polarity independently of AS2 and the ta-siRNA-related pathway. Treatment with an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) caused additive polarity defects in as2-1 east1-1 mutant plants, suggesting the operation of an ELO3 pathway, independent of the HDAC pathway, in the determination of polarity. We propose that multiple pathways play important roles in repression of the expression of class 1 KNOX and abaxial-determinant genes in the development of the adaxial domain of leaves and, thus, in the establishment of leaf polarity.
Keywords
Elongator, ELONGATA3 (ELO3), Leaf polarity, Histone acetyltransferase, Arabidopsis thaliana, ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2), LEAF ADAXIAL IDENTITY, TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION, RIBOSOMAL-PROTEINS, POLYMERASE-II HOLOENZYME, INTERFERING RNA, CLASS IIIHD-ZIP, LATERAL ORGANS, GENE FAMILY, MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS, CELL-DIFFERENTIATION

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Chicago
Kojima, Shoko, Mayumi Iwasaki, Hiro Takahashi, Tomoya Imai, Yoko Matsumura, Delphine Fleury, Maria Van Lijsebettens, Yasunori Machida, and Chiyoko Machida. 2011. “Asymmetric Leaves2 and Elongator, a Histone Acetyltransferase Complex, Mediate the Establishment of Polarity in Leaves of Arabidopsis Thaliana.” Plant and Cell Physiology 52 (8): 1259–1273.
APA
Kojima, S., Iwasaki, M., Takahashi, H., Imai, T., Matsumura, Y., Fleury, D., Van Lijsebettens, M., et al. (2011). Asymmetric leaves2 and elongator, a histone acetyltransferase complex, mediate the establishment of polarity in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY, 52(8), 1259–1273.
Vancouver
1.
Kojima S, Iwasaki M, Takahashi H, Imai T, Matsumura Y, Fleury D, et al. Asymmetric leaves2 and elongator, a histone acetyltransferase complex, mediate the establishment of polarity in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY. 2011;52(8):1259–73.
MLA
Kojima, Shoko et al. “Asymmetric Leaves2 and Elongator, a Histone Acetyltransferase Complex, Mediate the Establishment of Polarity in Leaves of Arabidopsis Thaliana.” PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY 52.8 (2011): 1259–1273. Print.
@article{1896861,
  abstract     = {Leaf primordia are generated around the shoot apical meristem. Mutation of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana results in defects in repression of the meristematic and indeterminate state, establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity and left-right symmetry in leaves. AS2 represses transcription of meristem-specific class 1 KNOX homeobox genes and of the abaxial-determinant genes ETTIN/ARF3, KANADI2 and YABBY5. To clarify the role of AS2 in the establishment of leaf polarity, we isolated mutations that enhanced the polarity defects associated with as2. We describe here the enhancer-of-asymmetric-leaves-two1 (east1) mutation, which caused the formation of filamentous leaves with abaxialized epidermis on the as2-1 background. Levels of transcripts of class 1 KNOX and abaxial-determinant genes were markedly higher in as2-1 east1-1 mutant plants than in the wild-type and corresponding single-mutant plants. EAST1 encodes the histone acetyltransferase ELONGATA3 (ELO3), a component of the Elongator complex. Genetic analysis, using mutations in genes involved in the biogenesis of a trans-acting small interfering RNA (ta-siRNA), revealed that ELO3 mediated establishment of leaf polarity independently of AS2 and the ta-siRNA-related pathway. Treatment with an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) caused additive polarity defects in as2-1 east1-1 mutant plants, suggesting the operation of an ELO3 pathway, independent of the HDAC pathway, in the determination of polarity. We propose that multiple pathways play important roles in repression of the expression of class 1 KNOX and abaxial-determinant genes in the development of the adaxial domain of leaves and, thus, in the establishment of leaf polarity.},
  author       = {Kojima, Shoko and Iwasaki, Mayumi and Takahashi, Hiro and Imai, Tomoya and Matsumura, Yoko and Fleury, Delphine and Van Lijsebettens, Maria and Machida, Yasunori and Machida, Chiyoko},
  issn         = {0032-0781},
  journal      = {PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Elongator,ELONGATA3 (ELO3),Leaf polarity,Histone acetyltransferase,Arabidopsis thaliana,ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2),LEAF ADAXIAL IDENTITY,TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION,RIBOSOMAL-PROTEINS,POLYMERASE-II HOLOENZYME,INTERFERING RNA,CLASS IIIHD-ZIP,LATERAL ORGANS,GENE FAMILY,MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS,CELL-DIFFERENTIATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {1259--1273},
  title        = {Asymmetric leaves2 and elongator, a histone acetyltransferase complex, mediate the establishment of polarity in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcr083},
  volume       = {52},
  year         = {2011},
}

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