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Task-load-dependent activation of dopaminergic midbrain areas in the absence of reward

(2011) JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE. 31(13). p.4955-4961
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Abstract
Dopamine release in cortical and subcortical structures plays a central role in reward-related neural processes. Within this context, dopaminergic inputs are commonly assumed to play an activating role, facilitating behavioral and cognitive operations necessary to obtain a prospective reward. Here, we provide evidence from human fMRI that this activating role can also be mediated by task-demand-related processes and thus extendsbeyondsituationsthatonlyentailextrinsicmotivatingfactors. Using a visual discrimination task in which varying levels of task demands were precued, we found enhanced hemodynamic activity in the substantia nigra (SN) for high task demands in the absence of reward or similar extrinsic motivating factors. This observation thus indicates that the SN can also be activated in an endogenous fashion. In parallel to its role in reward-related processes, reward-independent activation likely serves to recruit the processing resources needed to meet enhanced task demands. Simultaneously, activity in a wide network of cortical and subcortical control regions was enhanced in response to high task demands, whereas areas of the default-mode network were deactivated more strongly. The present observations suggest that the SN represents a core node within a broader neural network that adjusts the amount of available neural and behavioral resources to changing situational opportunities and task requirements, which is often driven by extrinsic factors but can also be controlled endogenously.
Keywords
PART II, ATTENTION, BRAIN, SHORT-LATENCY, DEFAULT MODE, NUCLEUS-ACCUMBENS, MEMORY FORMATION, EVENT-RELATED FMRI, PARKINSONS-DISEASE, PREFRONTAL CORTEX

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Citation

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MLA
Böhler, Nico et al. “Task-load-dependent Activation of Dopaminergic Midbrain Areas in the Absence of Reward.” JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 31.13 (2011): 4955–4961. Print.
APA
Böhler, N., Hopf, J.-M., Krebs, R., Stoppel, C. M., Schoenfeld, M. A., Heinze, H.-J., & Noesselt, T. (2011). Task-load-dependent activation of dopaminergic midbrain areas in the absence of reward. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, 31(13), 4955–4961.
Chicago author-date
Böhler, Nico, Jens-Max Hopf, Ruth Krebs, Christian M Stoppel, Mircea A Schoenfeld, Hans-Jochen Heinze, and Toemme Noesselt. 2011. “Task-load-dependent Activation of Dopaminergic Midbrain Areas in the Absence of Reward.” Journal of Neuroscience 31 (13): 4955–4961.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Böhler, Nico, Jens-Max Hopf, Ruth Krebs, Christian M Stoppel, Mircea A Schoenfeld, Hans-Jochen Heinze, and Toemme Noesselt. 2011. “Task-load-dependent Activation of Dopaminergic Midbrain Areas in the Absence of Reward.” Journal of Neuroscience 31 (13): 4955–4961.
Vancouver
1.
Böhler N, Hopf J-M, Krebs R, Stoppel CM, Schoenfeld MA, Heinze H-J, et al. Task-load-dependent activation of dopaminergic midbrain areas in the absence of reward. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE. 2011;31(13):4955–61.
IEEE
[1]
N. Böhler et al., “Task-load-dependent activation of dopaminergic midbrain areas in the absence of reward,” JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, vol. 31, no. 13, pp. 4955–4961, 2011.
@article{1895971,
  abstract     = {Dopamine release in cortical and subcortical structures plays a central role in reward-related neural processes. Within this context, dopaminergic inputs are commonly assumed to play an activating role, facilitating behavioral and cognitive operations necessary to obtain a prospective reward. Here, we provide evidence from human fMRI that this activating role can also be mediated by task-demand-related processes and thus extendsbeyondsituationsthatonlyentailextrinsicmotivatingfactors. Using a visual discrimination task in which varying levels of task demands were precued, we found enhanced hemodynamic activity in the substantia nigra (SN) for high task demands in the absence of reward or similar extrinsic motivating factors. This observation thus indicates that the SN can also be activated in an endogenous fashion. In parallel to its role in reward-related processes, reward-independent activation likely serves to recruit the processing resources needed to meet enhanced task demands. Simultaneously, activity in a wide network of cortical and subcortical control regions was enhanced in response to high task demands, whereas areas of the default-mode network were deactivated more strongly. The present observations suggest that the SN represents a core node within a broader neural network that adjusts the amount of available neural and behavioral resources to changing situational opportunities and task requirements, which is often driven by extrinsic factors but can also be controlled endogenously.},
  author       = {Böhler, Nico and Hopf, Jens-Max and Krebs, Ruth and Stoppel, Christian M and Schoenfeld, Mircea A and Heinze, Hans-Jochen and Noesselt, Toemme},
  issn         = {0270-6474},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE},
  keywords     = {PART II,ATTENTION,BRAIN,SHORT-LATENCY,DEFAULT MODE,NUCLEUS-ACCUMBENS,MEMORY FORMATION,EVENT-RELATED FMRI,PARKINSONS-DISEASE,PREFRONTAL CORTEX},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {13},
  pages        = {4955--4961},
  title        = {Task-load-dependent activation of dopaminergic midbrain areas in the absence of reward},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4845-10.2011},
  volume       = {31},
  year         = {2011},
}

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