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Furan formation in food model systems

Agnieszka Owczarek-Fendor UGent (2011)
abstract
Since furan has been classified as “possibly carcinogenic to humans” (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1995), its presence in foods has acquired significant attention. Many studies on furan formation have been performed mainly in simple model systems (buffered or dry mixtures of furan precursors) which do not fully represent food. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to investigate furan generation in more realistic starch-based model systems containing various furan precursors, such as vitamin C (ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid), carbohydrates, lipids (vegetable oils as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids) or mixtures of lipids and antioxidants, all either alone or in the presence of proteins. In addition, the interactions between various furan precursors were studied. The quantitative determination of furan was performed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that ascorbic acid and lactose at pH 6.0 with and without proteins were particularly vulnerable to furan formation upon heating when incorporated in a starch-based model system. Interestingly, starch itself showed an enhancing effect on furan formation from ascorbic acid as compared to buffered solutions of this vitamin heated under the same conditions. Fresh oils were nearly unable to generate furan. However, oils, such as soybean, rapeseed and linseed oil, containing α linolenic acid, generated considerable amounts of furan, but only when highly oxidized. Remarkably, generation of furan in emulsions containing fresh and oxidized oils was significantly enhanced in the presence of ascorbic acid, which indicated a synergistic effect between oils and vitamin C. This phenomenon was probably due to an enhanced degradation of this vitamin in the presence of lipids. These results illustrated the importance of the interactions between furan precursors, e.g. oils and ascorbic, in real foods which were currently neglected in the literature. In conclusion, this research contributed to a better understanding of furan formation in food. It indicated the most relevant sources of furan and the most important factors influencing furan generation, which can be useful for the food industry in order to mitigate the formation of furan.
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author
promoter
UGent and UGent
organization
alternative title
Furaanvorming in modelsystemen voor levensmiddelen
year
type
dissertation (monograph)
subject
keyword
furan, SPME-GC-MS, food model stystems, starch, vitamin C, carbohydrates, lipids
pages
150 pages
publisher
Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering
place of publication
Ghent, Belgium
defense location
Gent: Academieraadzaal (Hall of the Academic Board), room A 0.030, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering (Coupure links 653)
defense date
2011-09-08 15:00
ISBN
9789059894556
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
D1
copyright statement
I have retained and own the full copyright for this publication
id
1894511
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-1894511
date created
2011-08-30 12:09:05
date last changed
2011-08-31 10:24:45
@phdthesis{1894511,
  abstract     = {Since furan has been classified as {\textquotedblleft}possibly carcinogenic to humans{\textquotedblright} (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1995), its presence in foods has acquired significant attention. Many studies on furan formation have been performed mainly in simple model systems (buffered or dry mixtures of furan precursors) which do not fully represent food. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to investigate furan generation in more realistic starch-based model systems containing various furan precursors, such as vitamin C (ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid), carbohydrates, lipids (vegetable oils as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids) or mixtures of lipids and antioxidants, all either alone or in the presence of proteins. In addition, the interactions between various furan precursors were studied. The quantitative determination of furan was performed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that ascorbic acid and lactose at pH 6.0 with and without proteins were particularly vulnerable to furan formation upon heating when incorporated in a starch-based model system. Interestingly, starch itself showed an enhancing effect on furan formation from ascorbic acid as compared to buffered solutions of this vitamin heated under the same conditions. Fresh oils were nearly unable to generate furan. However, oils, such as soybean, rapeseed and linseed oil, containing \ensuremath{\alpha} linolenic acid, generated considerable amounts of furan, but only when highly oxidized. Remarkably, generation of furan in emulsions containing fresh and oxidized oils was significantly enhanced in the presence of ascorbic acid, which indicated a synergistic effect between oils and vitamin C. This phenomenon was probably due to an enhanced degradation of this vitamin in the presence of lipids. These results illustrated the importance of the interactions between furan precursors, e.g. oils and ascorbic, in real foods which were currently neglected in the literature. In conclusion, this research contributed to a better understanding of furan formation in food. It indicated the most relevant sources of furan and the most important factors influencing furan generation, which can be useful for the food industry in order to mitigate the formation of furan.},
  author       = {Owczarek-Fendor, Agnieszka},
  isbn         = {9789059894556},
  keyword      = {furan,SPME-GC-MS,food model stystems,starch,vitamin C,carbohydrates,lipids},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {150},
  publisher    = {Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering},
  school       = {Ghent University},
  title        = {Furan formation in food model systems},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
Owczarek-Fendor, Agnieszka. 2011. “Furan Formation in Food Model Systems”. Ghent, Belgium: Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering.
APA
Owczarek-Fendor, A. (2011). Furan formation in food model systems. Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent, Belgium.
Vancouver
1.
Owczarek-Fendor A. Furan formation in food model systems. [Ghent, Belgium]: Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering; 2011.
MLA
Owczarek-Fendor, Agnieszka. “Furan Formation in Food Model Systems.” 2011 : n. pag. Print.