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Phosphate enrichment in the sandy loam soils of West-Flanders, Belgium

(1996) FERTILIZER RESEARCH. 43(1-3). p.209-215
Author
Organization
Abstract
The last three decades, pig breeding has evolved towards a specialised, large scaled, land independent bio-industry in the province of West-Flanders. Subsequently, in certain regions, very high amounts of liquid pig manure are produced each year. This pig slurry is used as a fertilizer at a rate which very often exceeds normal agricultural practices. Because of the nonequilibrium between the phosphorus crop requirements and the P-inputs, phosphates accumulate in the soil. However, the phosphate sorption capacity of a soil is limited. Once the sorption capacity is exceeded, phosphates will start leaching through the soil profile. Since, during winter, in these areas, the groundwater table is situated at a depth of less than 1.0 m, phosphate breakthrough might take place. In the sandy loam soil region (+/- 1000 km(2)) of the province, an inventory of the P status of the soil was made. The region was sampled according to a regular grid with 2 km intervals. At random, some sample points were only 500 m apart. This resulted in a total of 296 samplings. In view of fertilizer recommendations, lactate extractable P of the plough layer (0-30 cm) was determined. A maximum value of 101 mg P 100 g(-1) of air dry soil, a minimum value of 6 mg P 100 g(-1) and a median value of 31 mg P 100 g(-1) were found, indicating that for half of the spots monitored, the P status of the soil is high to very high. An oxalate extraction was done to investigate the phosphate saturation of the soil profile (0-90 cm). Based on a critical phosphate saturation degree of 30%, more than half of the soil profiles are phosphate saturated. Phosphate leaching at a rate higher than 0.1 mg ortho-P l(-1) at a depth of 90 cm can be expected. Therefore, a restriction of the P fertilization should be highly recommended. The geostatistical processing of the data using block kriging resulted in a spatial continuous estimate of the phosphate saturation degree. A good agreement was found between the pig density and the phosphate saturation degree of the soil profile.
Keywords
eutrophication, OPTIMAL INTERPOLATION, leaching, inventory, phosphorus, saturation, TRANSPORT, SORPTION, KINETICS, MODEL

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Chicago
De Smet, J, Georges Hofman, Jean Vanderdeelen, Marc Van Meirvenne, and Leon Baert. 1996. “Phosphate Enrichment in the Sandy Loam Soils of West-Flanders, Belgium.” Fertilizer Research 43 (1-3): 209–215.
APA
De Smet, J, Hofman, G., Vanderdeelen, J., Van Meirvenne, M., & Baert, L. (1996). Phosphate enrichment in the sandy loam soils of West-Flanders, Belgium. FERTILIZER RESEARCH, 43(1-3), 209–215. Presented at the International Symposium on Fertilizers and the Environment.
Vancouver
1.
De Smet J, Hofman G, Vanderdeelen J, Van Meirvenne M, Baert L. Phosphate enrichment in the sandy loam soils of West-Flanders, Belgium. FERTILIZER RESEARCH. 1996;43(1-3):209–15.
MLA
De Smet, J, Georges Hofman, Jean Vanderdeelen, et al. “Phosphate Enrichment in the Sandy Loam Soils of West-Flanders, Belgium.” FERTILIZER RESEARCH 43.1-3 (1996): 209–215. Print.
@article{188085,
  abstract     = {The last three decades, pig breeding has evolved towards a specialised, large scaled, land independent bio-industry in the province of West-Flanders. Subsequently, in certain regions, very high amounts of liquid pig manure are produced each year. This pig slurry is used as a fertilizer at a rate which very often exceeds normal agricultural practices. Because of the nonequilibrium between the phosphorus crop requirements and the P-inputs, phosphates accumulate in the soil. However, the phosphate sorption capacity of a soil is limited. Once the sorption capacity is exceeded, phosphates will start leaching through the soil profile. Since, during winter, in these areas, the groundwater table is situated at a depth of less than 1.0 m, phosphate breakthrough might take place. In the sandy loam soil region (+/- 1000 km(2)) of the province, an inventory of the P status of the soil was made. The region was sampled according to a regular grid with 2 km intervals. At random, some sample points were only 500 m apart. This resulted in a total of 296 samplings. In view of fertilizer recommendations, lactate extractable P of the plough layer (0-30 cm) was determined. A maximum value of 101 mg P 100 g(-1) of air dry soil, a minimum value of 6 mg P 100 g(-1) and a median value of 31 mg P 100 g(-1) were found, indicating that for half of the spots monitored, the P status of the soil is high to very high. An oxalate extraction was done to investigate the phosphate saturation of the soil profile (0-90 cm). Based on a critical phosphate saturation degree of 30\%, more than half of the soil profiles are phosphate saturated. Phosphate leaching at a rate higher than 0.1 mg ortho-P l(-1) at a depth of 90 cm can be expected. Therefore, a restriction of the P fertilization should be highly recommended. The geostatistical processing of the data using block kriging resulted in a spatial continuous estimate of the phosphate saturation degree. A good agreement was found between the pig density and the phosphate saturation degree of the soil profile.},
  author       = {De Smet, J and Hofman, Georges and Vanderdeelen, Jean and Van Meirvenne, Marc and Baert, Leon},
  issn         = {0167-1731},
  journal      = {FERTILIZER RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {eutrophication,OPTIMAL INTERPOLATION,leaching,inventory,phosphorus,saturation,TRANSPORT,SORPTION,KINETICS,MODEL},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Salamanca, Spain},
  number       = {1-3},
  pages        = {209--215},
  title        = {Phosphate enrichment in the sandy loam soils of West-Flanders, Belgium},
  volume       = {43},
  year         = {1996},
}