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Eye movements and word skipping during reading: effects of word length and predictability

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Abstract
Eye movements were monitored as subjects read sentences containing high or low predictable target words. The extent to which target words were predictable from prior context was varied: half of the target words were predictable and the other half were unpredictable. In addition, the length of the target word varied: the target words were short (4-6 letters), medium (7-9 letters), or long (10-12 letters). Length and predictability both yielded strong effects on the probability of skipping the target words and on the amount of time readers fixated the target words (when they were not skipped). However, there was no interaction in any of the measures examined for either skipping or fixation time. The results demonstrate that word predictability (due to contextual constraint) and word length have strong and independent influences on word skipping and fixation durations. Furthermore, since the long words extended beyond the word identification span, the data indicate that skipping can occur on the basis of partial information in relation to word identity.
Keywords
FREQUENCY, INFORMATION, DYNAMICAL MODEL, SACCADE GENERATION, MISLOCATED FIXATIONS, CONTEXTUAL CONSTRAINT, PERCEPTUAL SPAN, ENGLISH LEXICON PROJECT, OPTIMAL VIEWING POSITION, Z-READER MODEL, word predictability, word length, eye movements, reading

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Citation

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Chicago
Rayner, Keith, Timothy Slattery, Denis Drieghe, and Simon Liversedge. 2011. “Eye Movements and Word Skipping During Reading: Effects of Word Length and Predictability.” Journal of Experimental Psychology-human Perception and Performance 37 (2): 514–528.
APA
Rayner, K., Slattery, T., Drieghe, D., & Liversedge, S. (2011). Eye movements and word skipping during reading: effects of word length and predictability. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE, 37(2), 514–528.
Vancouver
1.
Rayner K, Slattery T, Drieghe D, Liversedge S. Eye movements and word skipping during reading: effects of word length and predictability. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE. 2011;37(2):514–28.
MLA
Rayner, Keith et al. “Eye Movements and Word Skipping During Reading: Effects of Word Length and Predictability.” JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE 37.2 (2011): 514–528. Print.
@article{1869546,
  abstract     = {Eye movements were monitored as subjects read sentences containing high or low predictable target words. The extent to which target words were predictable from prior context was varied: half of the target words were predictable and the other half were unpredictable.  In addition, the length of the target word varied: the target words were short (4-6 letters), medium (7-9 letters), or long (10-12 letters).  Length and predictability both yielded strong effects on the probability of skipping the target words and on the amount of time readers fixated the target words (when they were not skipped).  However, there was no interaction in any of the measures examined for either skipping or fixation time.  The results demonstrate that word predictability (due to contextual constraint) and word length have strong and independent influences on word skipping and fixation durations. Furthermore, since the long words extended beyond the word identification span, the data indicate that skipping can occur on the basis of partial information in relation to word identity.},
  author       = {Rayner, Keith and Slattery, Timothy and Drieghe, Denis and Liversedge, Simon},
  issn         = {0096-1523},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE},
  keywords     = {FREQUENCY,INFORMATION,DYNAMICAL MODEL,SACCADE GENERATION,MISLOCATED FIXATIONS,CONTEXTUAL CONSTRAINT,PERCEPTUAL SPAN,ENGLISH LEXICON PROJECT,OPTIMAL VIEWING POSITION,Z-READER MODEL,word predictability,word length,eye movements,reading},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {514--528},
  title        = {Eye movements and word skipping during reading: effects of word length and predictability},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020990},
  volume       = {37},
  year         = {2011},
}

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