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Imec has developed a new technology to integrate and interconnect back-contact solar cells into modules, based on embedding cells in silicone on top of a glass substrate. This technology aims at an improved optical performance and reliability (through the use of silicones and low-temperature metallization). One of the additional advantages is that the technology is suitable for integrating very thin cells into modules: whereas standalone interconnection of such fragile thin cells, e. g. tabbing and stringing, would significantly lower the throughput yield due to breakage, the cells are better protected if they are embedded inside silicone. The paper will first elaborate on the process flow, the background and motivation, advantages, drawbacks and limitations, and technical aspects of the developed technology. Then it will present the results of the measurements on the performance of functional solar cells processed into modules using this technology, discussing losses and loss mechanisms. Then, the approach towards determining the reliability of the module will be presented, indicating how imec aims at building up an ageing model, and elaborating the results on the failure mode and effect analysis, modeling, characterization and reliability testing.
Keywords
embedding, thin cells, solar modules

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MLA
Govaerts, Jonathan, Jo Robbelein, Chun Gong, et al. “Performance of a New Type of Module Based on Back-contact Solar Cells.” Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering. Ed. NG Dhere, JH Wohlgemuth, & K Lynn. Vol. 7773. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, 2010. Print.
APA
Govaerts, J., Robbelein, J., Gong, C., Pawlak, B. J., Gonzalez, M., De Wolf, I., Bossuyt, F., et al. (2010). Performance of a new type of module based on back-contact solar cells. In N. Dhere, J. Wohlgemuth, & K. Lynn (Eds.), Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering (Vol. 7773). Presented at the Conference on Reliability of Photovoltaic Cells, Modules, Components, and Systems III, Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering.
Chicago author-date
Govaerts, Jonathan, Jo Robbelein, Chun Gong, Bartek J Pawlak, Mario Gonzalez, Ingrid De Wolf, Frederick Bossuyt, et al. 2010. “Performance of a New Type of Module Based on Back-contact Solar Cells.” In Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ed. NG Dhere, JH Wohlgemuth, and K Lynn. Vol. 7773. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Govaerts, Jonathan, Jo Robbelein, Chun Gong, Bartek J Pawlak, Mario Gonzalez, Ingrid De Wolf, Frederick Bossuyt, Steven Van Put, Ivan Gordon, Kris Baert, and Jan Vanfleteren. 2010. “Performance of a New Type of Module Based on Back-contact Solar Cells.” In Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ed. NG Dhere, JH Wohlgemuth, and K Lynn. Vol. 7773. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering.
Vancouver
1.
Govaerts J, Robbelein J, Gong C, Pawlak BJ, Gonzalez M, De Wolf I, et al. Performance of a new type of module based on back-contact solar cells. In: Dhere N, Wohlgemuth J, Lynn K, editors. Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering; 2010.
IEEE
[1]
J. Govaerts et al., “Performance of a new type of module based on back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, vol. 7773.
@inproceedings{1866058,
  abstract     = {Imec has developed a new technology to integrate and interconnect back-contact solar cells into modules, based on embedding cells in silicone on top of a glass substrate. This technology aims at an improved optical performance and reliability (through the use of silicones and low-temperature metallization). One of the additional advantages is that the technology is suitable for integrating very thin cells into modules: whereas standalone interconnection of such fragile thin cells, e. g. tabbing and stringing, would significantly lower the throughput yield due to breakage, the cells are better protected if they are embedded inside silicone. 
The paper will first elaborate on the process flow, the background and motivation, advantages, drawbacks and limitations, and technical aspects of the developed technology. Then it will present the results of the measurements on the performance of functional solar cells processed into modules using this technology, discussing losses and loss mechanisms. Then, the approach towards determining the reliability of the module will be presented, indicating how imec aims at building up an ageing model, and elaborating the results on the failure mode and effect analysis, modeling, characterization and reliability testing.},
  articleno    = {77730X},
  author       = {Govaerts, Jonathan and Robbelein, Jo and Gong, Chun and Pawlak, Bartek J and Gonzalez, Mario and De Wolf, Ingrid and Bossuyt, Frederick and Van Put, Steven and Gordon, Ivan and Baert, Kris and Vanfleteren, Jan},
  booktitle    = {Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering},
  editor       = {Dhere, NG and Wohlgemuth, JH and Lynn, K},
  isbn         = {9780819482693},
  issn         = {0277-786X},
  keywords     = {embedding,thin cells,solar modules},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {San Diego, CA, USA},
  pages        = {10},
  publisher    = {SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering},
  title        = {Performance of a new type of module based on back-contact solar cells},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.859815},
  volume       = {7773},
  year         = {2010},
}

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