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Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

(2011) CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION. 18(8). p.1241-1246
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Biotechnology for a sustainable economy (Bio-Economy)
Abstract
Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during tissue and organ formation and elimination, whereas necrosis is typically found under abiotic stress. Some examples of plant PCD cannot be ascribed to either major class and are therefore classified as separate modalities. These are PCD associated with the hypersensitive response to biotrophic pathogens, which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined.
Keywords
HYPERSENSITIVE RESPONSE, INNATE IMMUNE-RESPONSE, vacuolar cell death, SELF-INCOMPATIBILITY, ARABIDOPSIS, AUTOPHAGY, SENESCENCE, APOPTOSIS, CONTRIBUTES, XYLOGENESIS, MECHANISMS, necrosis, hypersensitive response, cell wall, apoptosis, autophagy

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Citation

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MLA
van Doorn, WG, EP Beers, JL Dangl, et al. “Morphological Classification of Plant Cell Deaths.” CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION 18.8 (2011): 1241–1246. Print.
APA
van Doorn, W., Beers, E., Dangl, J., Franklin-Tong, V., Gallois, P., Hara-Nishimura, I., Jones, A., et al. (2011). Morphological classification of plant cell deaths. CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION, 18(8), 1241–1246.
Chicago author-date
van Doorn, WG, EP Beers, JL Dangl, VE Franklin-Tong, P Gallois, I Hara-Nishimura, AM Jones, et al. 2011. “Morphological Classification of Plant Cell Deaths.” Cell Death and Differentiation 18 (8): 1241–1246.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
van Doorn, WG, EP Beers, JL Dangl, VE Franklin-Tong, P Gallois, I Hara-Nishimura, AM Jones, M Kawai-Yamada, E Lam, J Mundy, LAJ Mur, M Petersen, A Smertenko, M Taliansky, Frank Van Breusegem, T Wolpert, E Woltering, B Zhivotovsky, and PV Bozhkov. 2011. “Morphological Classification of Plant Cell Deaths.” Cell Death and Differentiation 18 (8): 1241–1246.
Vancouver
1.
van Doorn W, Beers E, Dangl J, Franklin-Tong V, Gallois P, Hara-Nishimura I, et al. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths. CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION. 2011;18(8):1241–6.
IEEE
[1]
W. van Doorn et al., “Morphological classification of plant cell deaths,” CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1241–1246, 2011.
@article{1865269,
  abstract     = {Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during tissue and organ formation and elimination, whereas necrosis is typically found under abiotic stress. Some examples of plant PCD cannot be ascribed to either major class and are therefore classified as separate modalities. These are PCD associated with the hypersensitive response to biotrophic pathogens, which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined.},
  author       = {van Doorn, WG and Beers, EP and Dangl, JL and Franklin-Tong, VE and Gallois, P and Hara-Nishimura, I and Jones, AM and Kawai-Yamada, M and Lam, E and Mundy, J and Mur, LAJ and Petersen, M and Smertenko, A and Taliansky, M and Van Breusegem, Frank and Wolpert, T and Woltering, E and Zhivotovsky, B and Bozhkov, PV},
  issn         = {1350-9047},
  journal      = {CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION},
  keywords     = {HYPERSENSITIVE RESPONSE,INNATE IMMUNE-RESPONSE,vacuolar cell death,SELF-INCOMPATIBILITY,ARABIDOPSIS,AUTOPHAGY,SENESCENCE,APOPTOSIS,CONTRIBUTES,XYLOGENESIS,MECHANISMS,necrosis,hypersensitive response,cell wall,apoptosis,autophagy},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {1241--1246},
  title        = {Morphological classification of plant cell deaths},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cdd.2011.36},
  volume       = {18},
  year         = {2011},
}

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