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Design and fabrication of embedded micro-mirror inserts for out-of-plane coupling in PCB-level optical interconnections

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Abstract
Optical interconnections have gained interest over the last years, and several approaches have been presented for the integration of optics to the printed circuit board (PCB)-level. The use of a polymer optical waveguide layer appears to be the prevailing solution to route optical signals on the PCB. The most difficult issue is the efficient out-of-plane coupling of light between surface-normal optoelectronic devices (lasers and photodetectors) and PCB-integrated waveguides. The most common approach consists of using 45 degrees reflecting micro-mirrors. The micro-mirror performance significantly affects the total insertion loss of the optical interconnect system, and hence has a crucial role on the system's bit error rate (BER) characteristics. Several technologies have been proposed for the fabrication of 45 degrees reflector micro-mirrors directly into waveguides. Alternatively, it is possible to make use of discrete coupling components which have to be inserted into cavities formed in the PCB-integrated waveguides. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach where we try to combine the advantages of integrated and discrete coupling mirrors, i.e. low coupling loss and maintenance of the planararity of the top surface of the optical layer, allowing the lamination of additional layers or the mounting of optoelectronic devices. The micro-mirror inserts are designed through non-sequential ray tracing simulations, including a tolerance analysis, and subsequently prototyped with Deep Proton Writing (DPW). The DPW prototypes are compatible with mass fabrication at low cost in a wide variety of high-tech plastics. The DPW micro-mirror insert is metallized and inserted in a laser ablated cavity in the optical layer and in a next step covered with cladding material. Surface roughness measurements confirm the excellent quality of the mirror facet. An average mirror loss of 0.35-dB was measured in a receiver scheme, which is the most stringent configuration. Finally, the configuration is robust, since the mirror is embedded and thus protected from environmental contamination, like dust or moisture adsorption, which makes them interesting candidates for out-of-plane coupling in high-end boards.
Keywords
optical interconnections, polymer waveguides, printed circuit board, PRINTED-CIRCUIT BOARD, WAVE-GUIDES, MICROMIRRORS, COMPONENTS, micro-mirror, laser ablation, coupling structures, deep proton writing

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Chicago
Van Erps, Jürgen, Nina Hendrickx, Erwin Bosman, Peter Van Daele, Christof Debaes, and Hugo Thienpont. 2010. “Design and Fabrication of Embedded Micro-mirror Inserts for Out-of-plane Coupling in PCB-level Optical Interconnections.” In Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ed. Hugo Thienpont, Peter Van Daele, Jürgen Mohr, and Hans Zappe. Vol. 7716. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering.
APA
Van Erps, Jürgen, Hendrickx, N., Bosman, E., Van Daele, P., Debaes, C., & Thienpont, H. (2010). Design and fabrication of embedded micro-mirror inserts for out-of-plane coupling in PCB-level optical interconnections. In H. Thienpont, P. Van Daele, J. Mohr, & H. Zappe (Eds.), Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering (Vol. 7716). Presented at the Conference on Micro-Optics 2010, Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering.
Vancouver
1.
Van Erps J, Hendrickx N, Bosman E, Van Daele P, Debaes C, Thienpont H. Design and fabrication of embedded micro-mirror inserts for out-of-plane coupling in PCB-level optical interconnections. In: Thienpont H, Van Daele P, Mohr J, Zappe H, editors. Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering; 2010.
MLA
Van Erps, Jürgen et al. “Design and Fabrication of Embedded Micro-mirror Inserts for Out-of-plane Coupling in PCB-level Optical Interconnections.” Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering. Ed. Hugo Thienpont et al. Vol. 7716. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, 2010. Print.
@inproceedings{1860230,
  abstract     = {Optical interconnections have gained interest over the last years, and several approaches have been presented for the integration of optics to the printed circuit board (PCB)-level. The use of a polymer optical waveguide layer appears to be the prevailing solution to route optical signals on the PCB. The most difficult issue is the efficient out-of-plane coupling of light between surface-normal optoelectronic devices (lasers and photodetectors) and PCB-integrated waveguides. The most common approach consists of using 45 degrees reflecting micro-mirrors. The micro-mirror performance significantly affects the total insertion loss of the optical interconnect system, and hence has a crucial role on the system's bit error rate (BER) characteristics. 
Several technologies have been proposed for the fabrication of 45 degrees reflector micro-mirrors directly into waveguides. Alternatively, it is possible to make use of discrete coupling components which have to be inserted into cavities formed in the PCB-integrated waveguides. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach where we try to combine the advantages of integrated and discrete coupling mirrors, i.e. low coupling loss and maintenance of the planararity of the top surface of the optical layer, allowing the lamination of additional layers or the mounting of optoelectronic devices. 
The micro-mirror inserts are designed through non-sequential ray tracing simulations, including a tolerance analysis, and subsequently prototyped with Deep Proton Writing (DPW). The DPW prototypes are compatible with mass fabrication at low cost in a wide variety of high-tech plastics. The DPW micro-mirror insert is metallized and inserted in a laser ablated cavity in the optical layer and in a next step covered with cladding material. Surface roughness measurements confirm the excellent quality of the mirror facet. An average mirror loss of 0.35-dB was measured in a receiver scheme, which is the most stringent configuration. Finally, the configuration is robust, since the mirror is embedded and thus protected from environmental contamination, like dust or moisture adsorption, which makes them interesting candidates for out-of-plane coupling in high-end boards.},
  articleno    = {77161Q},
  author       = {Van Erps, Jürgen and Hendrickx, Nina and Bosman, Erwin and Van Daele, Peter and Debaes, Christof and Thienpont, Hugo},
  booktitle    = {Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering},
  editor       = {Thienpont, Hugo and Van Daele, Peter and Mohr, Jürgen and Zappe, Hans},
  isbn         = {9780819481894},
  issn         = {0277-786X},
  keywords     = {optical interconnections,polymer waveguides,printed circuit board,PRINTED-CIRCUIT BOARD,WAVE-GUIDES,MICROMIRRORS,COMPONENTS,micro-mirror,laser ablation,coupling structures,deep proton writing},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Brussels, Belgium},
  pages        = {10},
  publisher    = {SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering},
  title        = {Design and fabrication of embedded micro-mirror inserts for out-of-plane coupling in PCB-level optical interconnections},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.853648},
  volume       = {7716},
  year         = {2010},
}

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