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Abstract
Meniscal lesion does not mean meniscectomy and this is particularly true for the lateral meniscus. The reputation of mildness of the meniscectomy is usurped. The rate of joint space narrowing after lateral meniscectomy is of 40% at a follow-up of 13 years compared to 28% for the medial meniscus (symposium SFA 1996). Several arguments explain those results: biomechanical: the lateral meniscus contributes to the congruence; particularly the lateral meniscus is the zone where anteroposterior translational during knee flexion is 12 mm. The pejorative effects of lateral meniscectomy have conducted, more though to the medial meniscus, to the concept of meniscal economy. Lateral meniscectomy must be as partial as possible. Particularly, a discoid meniscus presenting a complete tear should be treated by a meniscoplasty in order to shape the meniscus in a more anatomic form- than a total meniscectomy. Lateral meniscectomy is indicated in complex or horizontal cleavage, symptomatic, on stable knees. A particular case is the cyst of the lateral meniscus. It is a cystic subcutaneous formation, usual consequence of a horizontal cleaved meniscus of which the particularity is that it opens besides the articulation. The strategy must not consist in the isolated treatment of the cyst. This pathology should be addressed by an arthroscopic meniscectomy reaching the meniscosynovial junction at the level of the cyst. Meniscal repair must be proposed every time if possible. Criteria of reparability are better studied on MRI. Preoperatively MRI is the first choice radiological exam. Two essential indications can be held back: the vertical peripheral longitudinal lesion is on the non-vascularized area, and the horizontal cleaving of the junior athlete (if the cleaving remains purely intra meniscal). Meniscal repair is highly performed when the meniscal tear is associated to a rupture of the ACL (simultaneous reconstruction of the LCA). Postoperative outcome is different of that of a < simple, arthroscopic meniscectomy. The healing process being slow, it suits to protect the suture by a splint in the first month, and with an exclusion of sports with knee torsion during 6 months. Functional results (absence of secondary meniscectomy) and anatomical results (reality of the cicatrisation) are good in 77% of cases (symposium of the French Society of Arthroscopy 2003) at a follow-up of 55 months. Survivorship analysis indicates that majority of the failures occur within two years: this testifies a default of primary cicatrisation. At the studied follow-up, meniscal repair was efficient to protect the cartilage. Lateral meniscus results are better that medial meniscus one. Those data support indications: - All suspicion of meniscal lesion must have an MRI preoperatively to confirm the lesion, to localize her and to search criteria of reparability; - All vertical longitudinal peripheral lesions can and must be repaired especially in young patients and children; - All horizontal cleaving of the junior athlete should be treated by open repair; - Surgical abstention must be proposed when the lesion is non symptomatic, or when le lesion is limited and associated to an ACL tear (in that case isolated ACL reconstruction is proposed), or when clinical symptoms are minimal; - Meniscectomy, always arthroscopic, is proposed for a symptomatic lesion in the avascular zone or for a deep horizontal cleavage or a complex tear; - Tear of the discoid meniscus should be treated by meniscoplasty. A painful knee after lateral meniscectomy might be due to a too limited initial meniscectomy: an iterative meniscectomy may be indicated or lateral femorotibial arthritis, especially after subtotal or total meniscectomy. In this last case and after failure of usual medical treatment such as viscosupplementation surgery may be indicated. Osteotomy in order to unload the lateral femorotibial compartment gives a partial response as the shearing forces remain. This osteotomy is indicated only if the lower limb axis is normal or in valgus. Meniscal allograft is an option in young patients in grade I or II arthritis. Results are promising. Rene Verclonk's series show a survivorship analysis of 75% at 7 years. Early diagnosis of a postmeniscectomy syndrome before cartilaginous lesions occur is essential for an adapted treatment. In conclusion, lateral meniscectomy are less frequent than those of the medial meniscus but their prognosis is less favorable. They should be early diagnosed (MRI). Treatment options are various: abstention, meniscectomy, and repair. Painful post lateral meniscectomy syndrome may be treated by a new surgical option: meniscal allograft.
Keywords
BOVINE MENISCUS, lateral meniscal repair, MEDIAL MENISCUS, DISCOID MENISCUS, FEMORAL VARUS OSTEOTOMY, HUMAN KNEE-JOINT, varus osteotomy, TERM FOLLOW-UP, ARTHROSCOPIC PARTIAL MENISCECTOMY, BASIC SCIENCE, STABLE KNEES, CYSTS, lateral meniscectomy, discoid meniscus, biomechanics, lateral meniscus, meniscal allograft

Citation

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MLA
Beaufils, P, P Clavert, JF Kempf, et al. “Adult Lateral Meniscus.” REVUE DE CHIRURGIE ORTHOPEDIQUE ET REPARATRICE DE L APPAREIL MOTEUR 2006 : 169–194. Print.
APA
Beaufils, P, Clavert, P., Kempf, J., Kahn, J., Djian, P., Hulet, C., Lebel, B., et al. (2006). Adult lateral meniscus. REVUE DE CHIRURGIE ORTHOPEDIQUE ET REPARATRICE DE L APPAREIL MOTEUR.
Chicago author-date
Beaufils, P, P Clavert, JF Kempf, JL Kahn, P Djian, C Hulet, B Lebel, et al. 2006. “Adult Lateral Meniscus.” Revue De Chirurgie Orthopedique Et Reparatrice De L Appareil Moteur.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Beaufils, P, P Clavert, JF Kempf, JL Kahn, P Djian, C Hulet, B Lebel, P Abadie, G Burdin, B Locker, C Vielpeau, JF Potel, A Frank, P Chambat, FX Verdot, René Verdonk, Karl Almqvist, Peter Verdonk, and R Hardy. 2006. “Adult Lateral Meniscus.” Revue De Chirurgie Orthopedique Et Reparatrice De L Appareil Moteur.
Vancouver
1.
Beaufils P, Clavert P, Kempf J, Kahn J, Djian P, Hulet C, et al. Adult lateral meniscus. REVUE DE CHIRURGIE ORTHOPEDIQUE ET REPARATRICE DE L APPAREIL MOTEUR. 2006. p. 169–94.
IEEE
[1]
P. Beaufils et al., “Adult lateral meniscus,” REVUE DE CHIRURGIE ORTHOPEDIQUE ET REPARATRICE DE L APPAREIL MOTEUR, vol. 92, no. suppl. 5. pp. 169–194, 2006.
@misc{1858949,
  abstract     = {Meniscal lesion does not mean meniscectomy and this is particularly true for the lateral meniscus. The reputation of mildness of the meniscectomy is usurped. The rate of joint space narrowing after lateral meniscectomy is of 40% at a follow-up of 13 years compared to 28% for the medial meniscus (symposium SFA 1996). Several arguments explain those results: biomechanical: the lateral meniscus contributes to the congruence; particularly the lateral meniscus is the zone where anteroposterior translational during knee flexion is 12 mm. The pejorative effects of lateral meniscectomy have conducted, more though to the medial meniscus, to the concept of meniscal economy. Lateral meniscectomy must be as partial as possible. Particularly, a discoid meniscus presenting a complete tear should be treated by a meniscoplasty in order to shape the meniscus in a more anatomic form- than a total meniscectomy. Lateral meniscectomy is indicated in complex or horizontal cleavage, symptomatic, on stable knees. A particular case is the cyst of the lateral meniscus. It is a cystic subcutaneous formation, usual consequence of a horizontal cleaved meniscus of which the particularity is that it opens besides the articulation. The strategy must not consist in the isolated treatment of the cyst. This pathology should be addressed by an arthroscopic meniscectomy reaching the meniscosynovial junction at the level of the cyst. Meniscal repair must be proposed every time if possible. Criteria of reparability are better studied on MRI. Preoperatively MRI is the first choice radiological exam. Two essential indications can be held back: the vertical peripheral longitudinal lesion is on the non-vascularized area, and the horizontal cleaving of the junior athlete (if the cleaving remains purely intra meniscal). Meniscal repair is highly performed when the meniscal tear is associated to a rupture of the ACL (simultaneous reconstruction of the LCA). Postoperative outcome is different of that of a < simple, arthroscopic meniscectomy. The healing process being slow, it suits to protect the suture by a splint in the first month, and with an exclusion of sports with knee torsion during 6 months. Functional results (absence of secondary meniscectomy) and anatomical results (reality of the cicatrisation) are good in 77% of cases (symposium of the French Society of Arthroscopy 2003) at a follow-up of 55 months. Survivorship analysis indicates that majority of the failures occur within two years: this testifies a default of primary cicatrisation. At the studied follow-up, meniscal repair was efficient to protect the cartilage. Lateral meniscus results are better that medial meniscus one. Those data support indications:
- All suspicion of meniscal lesion must have an MRI preoperatively to confirm the lesion, to localize her and to search criteria of reparability;
- All vertical longitudinal peripheral lesions can and must be repaired especially in young patients and children;
- All horizontal cleaving of the junior athlete should be treated by open repair;
- Surgical abstention must be proposed when the lesion is non symptomatic, or when le lesion is limited and associated to an ACL tear (in that case isolated ACL reconstruction is proposed), or when clinical symptoms are minimal;
- Meniscectomy, always arthroscopic, is proposed for a symptomatic lesion in the avascular zone or for a deep horizontal cleavage or a complex tear;
- Tear of the discoid meniscus should be treated by meniscoplasty.
A painful knee after lateral meniscectomy might be due to a too limited initial meniscectomy: an iterative meniscectomy may be indicated or lateral femorotibial arthritis, especially after subtotal or total meniscectomy. In this last case and after failure of usual medical treatment such as viscosupplementation surgery may be indicated. Osteotomy in order to unload the lateral femorotibial compartment gives a partial response as the shearing forces remain. This osteotomy is indicated only if the lower limb axis is normal or in valgus. Meniscal allograft is an option in young patients in grade I or II arthritis. Results are promising. Rene Verclonk's series show a survivorship analysis of 75% at 7 years. Early diagnosis of a postmeniscectomy syndrome before cartilaginous lesions occur is essential for an adapted treatment.
In conclusion, lateral meniscectomy are less frequent than those of the medial meniscus but their prognosis is less favorable. They should be early diagnosed (MRI). Treatment options are various: abstention, meniscectomy, and repair. Painful post lateral meniscectomy syndrome may be treated by a new surgical option: meniscal allograft.},
  author       = {Beaufils, P and Clavert, P and Kempf, JF and Kahn, JL and Djian, P and Hulet, C and Lebel, B and Abadie, P and Burdin, G and Locker, B and Vielpeau, C and Potel, JF and Frank, A and Chambat, P and Verdot, FX and Verdonk, René and Almqvist, Karl and Verdonk, Peter and Hardy, R},
  issn         = {0035-1040},
  keywords     = {BOVINE MENISCUS,lateral meniscal repair,MEDIAL MENISCUS,DISCOID MENISCUS,FEMORAL VARUS OSTEOTOMY,HUMAN KNEE-JOINT,varus osteotomy,TERM FOLLOW-UP,ARTHROSCOPIC PARTIAL MENISCECTOMY,BASIC SCIENCE,STABLE KNEES,CYSTS,lateral meniscectomy,discoid meniscus,biomechanics,lateral meniscus,meniscal allograft},
  language     = {fre},
  number       = {suppl. 5},
  pages        = {169--194},
  series       = {REVUE DE CHIRURGIE ORTHOPEDIQUE ET REPARATRICE DE L APPAREIL MOTEUR},
  title        = {Adult lateral meniscus},
  volume       = {92},
  year         = {2006},
}

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