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Appendix to 'brokers'and 'guild' (huiguan 會館) organizations in China's Maritime trade with her Eastern neighbours during the Ming and Qing dynasties

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Abstract
Reportedly, in 1393 the Ming Emperor Hongwu 洪武 (r. 1368–1398) sent thirty-six Chinese families to the Ryūkyūs 琉球 as officials to assist in the maintenance of bilateral diplomatic and exchange relations as well as the establishment of a stable bureaucratic government on the islands. The Ming shi 明史 speaks of “thirty-six households of ship-builders which were bestowed from among the people of Min, in order to ease the intercourse of tribute envoys” (ci Minzhong zhougong sanshiliu hu, yi bian gongshi wanglai 賜閩中舟工三十六户以便貢使往来). The Lidai bao’an 歷代寶案 mentiones thirty-six surnames from Min who entered the country (Minren sanshiliu xing ruguo 閩人三十六姓入國). Descendants of these thirty-six families later frequently served as foreign interpreters (yi tongshi 夷通事) in bilateral relations. The list provided here introduces the genealogy of the Cai 蔡 family and its members, descendents of Cai Chong 蔡崇, who served as interpreter-clerks, envoys or in related functions during missions to or from China. It is an appendix to the article “Brokers and ‘Guild’ (huiguan 會館) Organizations in China’s Maritime Trade with her Eastern Neighbours during the Ming and Qing Dynasties”, Crossroads 1/2 (2010), 99–150, by Angela Schottenhammer.

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Citation

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Chicago
Schottenhammer, Angela. 2011. “Appendix to ‘Brokers’and ‘Guild’ (huiguan 會館) Organizations in China’s Maritime Trade with Her Eastern Neighbours During the Ming and Qing Dynasties.” Ed. Angela Schottenhammer. Crossroads : Studies on the History of Exchange Relations in the East Asian World 3 (april): 21–52.
APA
Schottenhammer, Angela. (2011). Appendix to “brokers”and “guild” (huiguan 會館) organizations in China’s Maritime trade with her Eastern neighbours during the Ming and Qing dynasties. (Angela Schottenhammer, Ed.)CROSSROADS : STUDIES ON THE HISTORY OF EXCHANGE RELATIONS IN THE EAST ASIAN WORLD, 3(april), 21–52.
Vancouver
1.
Schottenhammer A. Appendix to “brokers”and “guild” (huiguan 會館) organizations in China’s Maritime trade with her Eastern neighbours during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Schottenhammer A, editor. CROSSROADS : STUDIES ON THE HISTORY OF EXCHANGE RELATIONS IN THE EAST ASIAN WORLD. 2011;3(april):21–52.
MLA
Schottenhammer, Angela. “Appendix to ‘Brokers’and ‘Guild’ (huiguan 會館) Organizations in China’s Maritime Trade with Her Eastern Neighbours During the Ming and Qing Dynasties.” Ed. Angela Schottenhammer. CROSSROADS : STUDIES ON THE HISTORY OF EXCHANGE RELATIONS IN THE EAST ASIAN WORLD 3.april (2011): 21–52. Print.
@article{1853314,
  abstract     = {Reportedly, in 1393 the Ming Emperor Hongwu \unmatched{6d2a}\unmatched{6b66} (r. 1368--1398) sent thirty-six Chinese families to the Ry\={u}ky\={u}s \unmatched{7409}\unmatched{7403} as officials to assist in the maintenance of bilateral diplomatic and exchange relations as well as the establishment of a stable bureaucratic government on the islands. The Ming shi \unmatched{660e}\unmatched{53f2} speaks of {\textquotedblleft}thirty-six households of ship-builders which were bestowed from among the people of Min, in order to ease the intercourse of tribute envoys{\textquotedblright} (ci Minzhong zhougong sanshiliu hu, yi bian gongshi wanglai \unmatched{8cdc}\unmatched{95a9}\unmatched{4e2d}\unmatched{821f}\unmatched{5de5}\unmatched{4e09}\unmatched{5341}\unmatched{516d}\unmatched{6237}\unmatched{4ee5}\unmatched{4fbf}\unmatched{8ca2}\unmatched{4f7f}\unmatched{5f80}\unmatched{6765}). The Lidai bao{\textquoteright}an \unmatched{6b77}\unmatched{4ee3}\unmatched{5bf6}\unmatched{6848} mentiones thirty-six surnames from Min who entered the country (Minren sanshiliu xing ruguo \unmatched{95a9}\unmatched{4eba}\unmatched{4e09}\unmatched{5341}\unmatched{516d}\unmatched{59d3}\unmatched{5165}\unmatched{570b}). Descendants of these thirty-six families later frequently served as foreign interpreters (yi tongshi \unmatched{5937}\unmatched{901a}\unmatched{4e8b}) in bilateral relations. The list provided here introduces the genealogy of the Cai \unmatched{8521} family and its members, descendents of Cai Chong \unmatched{8521}\unmatched{5d07}, who served as interpreter-clerks, envoys or in related functions during missions to or from China. It is an appendix to the article {\textquotedblleft}Brokers and {\textquoteleft}Guild{\textquoteright} (huiguan \unmatched{6703}\unmatched{9928}) Organizations in China{\textquoteright}s Maritime Trade with her Eastern Neighbours during the Ming and Qing Dynasties{\textquotedblright}, Crossroads 1/2 (2010), 99--150, by Angela Schottenhammer.},
  author       = {Schottenhammer, Angela},
  editor       = {Schottenhammer, Angela},
  issn         = {2190-8796},
  journal      = {CROSSROADS : STUDIES ON THE HISTORY OF EXCHANGE RELATIONS IN THE EAST ASIAN WORLD},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {april},
  pages        = {21--52},
  title        = {Appendix to 'brokers'and 'guild' (huiguan \unmatched{6703}\unmatched{9928}) organizations in China's Maritime trade with her Eastern neighbours during the Ming and Qing dynasties},
  volume       = {3},
  year         = {2011},
}