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Regulation of sulfur assimilation in higher plants: a sulfate transporter induced in sulfate-starved roots plays a central role in Arabidopsis thaliana

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Abstract
Proton/sulfate cotransporters in the plasma membranes are responsible for uptake of the environmental sulfate used in the sulfate assimilation pathway in plants. Here we report the cloning and characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana gene, AST68, a new member of the sulfate transporter gene family in higher plants, Sequence analysis of cDNA and genomic clones of AST68 revealed that the AST68 gene is composed of 10 exons encoding a 677-aa polypeptide (74.1 kDa) that is able to functionally complement a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking a sulfate transporter gene. Southern hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping confirmed that AST68 is a single-copy gene that maps to the top arm of chromosome 5. Northern hybridization analysis of sulfate-starved plants indicated that the steady-state mRNA abundance of AST68 increased specifically in roots up to 9-fold by sulfate starvation. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that AST68 transcripts were accumulated in the central cylinder of sulfate-starved roots, but not in the xylem, endodermis, cortex, and epidermis. Among all the structural genes for sulfate assimilation, sulfate transporter (AST68), APS reductase (APR1), and serine acetyltransferase (SATI) were inducible by sulfate starvation in A. thaliana. The sulfate transporter (AST68) exhibited the most intensive and specific response in roots, indicating that AST68 plays a central role in the regulation of sulfate assimilation in plants.
Keywords
LEMNA-MINOR, GENE-FAMILY, FUNCTIONAL EXPRESSION, SERINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE, CYSTEINE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCE, ESCHERICHIA-COLI, CDNA CLONE, ATP SULFURYLASE, MOLECULAR-CLONING

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Chicago
Takahashi, Hideki, Mami Yamazaki, Noriko Sasakura, Akiko Watanabe, Thomas Leustek, Janice de Almeida Engler, Gilbert Engler, Marc Van Montagu, and Kazuki Saito. 1997. “Regulation of Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: a Sulfate Transporter Induced in Sulfate-starved Roots Plays a Central Role in Arabidopsis Thaliana.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94 (20): 11102–11107.
APA
Takahashi, H., Yamazaki, M., Sasakura, N., Watanabe, A., Leustek, T., de Almeida Engler, J., Engler, G., et al. (1997). Regulation of sulfur assimilation in higher plants: a sulfate transporter induced in sulfate-starved roots plays a central role in Arabidopsis thaliana. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 94(20), 11102–11107.
Vancouver
1.
Takahashi H, Yamazaki M, Sasakura N, Watanabe A, Leustek T, de Almeida Engler J, et al. Regulation of sulfur assimilation in higher plants: a sulfate transporter induced in sulfate-starved roots plays a central role in Arabidopsis thaliana. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 1997;94(20):11102–7.
MLA
Takahashi, Hideki, Mami Yamazaki, Noriko Sasakura, et al. “Regulation of Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: a Sulfate Transporter Induced in Sulfate-starved Roots Plays a Central Role in Arabidopsis Thaliana.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 94.20 (1997): 11102–11107. Print.
@article{185308,
  abstract     = {Proton/sulfate cotransporters in the plasma membranes are responsible for uptake of the environmental sulfate used in the sulfate assimilation pathway in plants. Here we report the cloning and characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana gene, AST68, a new member of the sulfate transporter gene family in higher plants, Sequence analysis of cDNA and genomic clones of AST68 revealed that the AST68 gene is composed of 10 exons encoding a 677-aa polypeptide (74.1 kDa) that is able to functionally complement a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking a sulfate transporter gene. Southern hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping confirmed that AST68 is a single-copy gene that maps to the top arm of chromosome 5. Northern hybridization analysis of sulfate-starved plants indicated that the steady-state mRNA abundance of AST68 increased specifically in roots up to 9-fold by sulfate starvation. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that AST68 transcripts were accumulated in the central cylinder of sulfate-starved roots, but not in the xylem, endodermis, cortex, and epidermis. Among all the structural genes for sulfate assimilation, sulfate transporter (AST68), APS reductase (APR1), and serine acetyltransferase (SATI) were inducible by sulfate starvation in A. thaliana. The sulfate transporter (AST68) exhibited the most intensive and specific response in roots, indicating that AST68 plays a central role in the regulation of sulfate assimilation in plants.},
  author       = {Takahashi, Hideki and Yamazaki, Mami and Sasakura, Noriko and Watanabe, Akiko and Leustek, Thomas and de Almeida Engler, Janice and Engler, Gilbert and Van Montagu, Marc and Saito, Kazuki},
  issn         = {0027-8424},
  journal      = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA},
  keyword      = {LEMNA-MINOR,GENE-FAMILY,FUNCTIONAL EXPRESSION,SERINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE,CYSTEINE BIOSYNTHESIS,NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCE,ESCHERICHIA-COLI,CDNA CLONE,ATP SULFURYLASE,MOLECULAR-CLONING},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {20},
  pages        = {11102--11107},
  title        = {Regulation of sulfur assimilation in higher plants: a sulfate transporter induced in sulfate-starved roots plays a central role in Arabidopsis thaliana},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.94.20.11102},
  volume       = {94},
  year         = {1997},
}

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